Prevalence and factors associated with dengue fever among febrile patients attending secondary health facilities in Kano metropolis, Nigeria

*1,2Abdulaziz, M. M., 2Ibrahim, A., 3Ado, M., 4Ameh, C., 4Umeokonkwo, C., 5Sufyan, M. B., 4Balogun, M. S., and 6Ahmed, S, A.

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP)

2Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

3Molecular Laboratory, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

4Africa Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET)

5Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria 6Department of Morbid Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has categorized dengue fever as a priority epidemic-prone disease. Kano metropolis is a hub for international trade and has seen rapid population growth with unplanned urbanisation. This provides the right environment for dengue virus transmission and spread. Most fevers in Nigeria and Kano in particular are treated as malaria or typhoid. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with dengue fever and dengue-malaria co-infection among febrile patients in Kano metropolis.

Methodology: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among febrile patients attending secondary health facilities in Kano metropolis. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit 440 participants into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect participants’ information, while blood was screened for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit and tested for dengue fever using an ELISA kit for dengue IgM. Data was cleaned and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and Epi Info version 7.2 to calculate frequencies, proportions and odds ratios.

Results: The median age of participants was 24 years (IQR= 13-36 years) while the age-group most represented was the 10-19 years’ age group with 97 (22.9%) participants. Males constituted 257 (60.6%) while most were single 238 (56.1%). Dengue IgM was positive for 332 (78.3%), while malaria RDT was positive for 81 (19.1%) and 67 (15.8%) were positive for both. Those aged above 25 years were less likely to present with dengue fever (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.33-0.97). Dengue fever contributes a high percentage to febrile illnesses seen in Kano metropolis. Significant proportions of febrile patients have both dengue and malaria co-infection. None of the participants had dengue as a presumptive diagnosis.

Conclusion: These findings imply dengue fever should feature as a prominent differential for febrile illnesses and dengue screening tests should be made available for all cases seen in Kano.

Keywords: seroprevalence; dengue fever; RDT; secondary health facilities; Nigeria. Continue reading “Prevalence and factors associated with dengue fever among febrile patients attending secondary health facilities in Kano metropolis, Nigeria”

Gastrointestinal parasites among swine bred in Edo State, Nigeria

*Omoruyi, Z., and Agbinone, I
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences,
University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Swine production in Nigeria is encountering several constraints among which are diseases. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of swine with respect to sex, age, location and hygiene practices in the breeding sites in three piggery farms; University of Benin Animal Farm; Osasio Farm Uselu in Egor Local Government Area (LGA), and Ojemai Farm Ekehuanwa Road, Oredo LGA, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 150 pigs were sampled from the 3 piggery farms. Faecal sample (10g each) was aseptically collected from the rectum of each selected pig and processed by concentration method to microscopically identify parasites in both saline and iodine preparations. A designed pre-tested structured questionnaire was interviewer-administered to each piggery owner to collect information on husbandry practices, animal health care issues and potential risk factors associated with parasitosis. Data was analysed using SPPSS version 20 software, while odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated on each potential risk factors.

Results: Of the 150 pigs examined, 130 (86.6%) were infected with five gastrointestinal parasitic agents. Strongyloides ransomi 81 (54%) was the most frequently identified parasite, followed by Ascaris suum 68 (45.3%), Giardia lamblia 31 (20.6%), Entamoeba polecki 10 (6.6%) and Trichuris suis 10 (6.6%). Single and mixed infections were not significantly associated with the observed prevalence (p>0.05). Similarly, the sex of pig was not significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites (p=0.8824). The prevalence of parasitosis among the grower (87.8%) was not significantly different from the adult swine (87.5%) (p>0.05). Osasio had the highest infection rate (90.0%) but this rate was not significantly different from the two other farms (p>0.05).

Conclusion: This study confirms high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in pigs bred in Edo State, Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that farmers improve on their biosecurity and adhere to routine de-worming regimen of pigs.

Keywords: age, gender, prevalence, gastrointestinal, parasite, swine Continue reading “Gastrointestinal parasites among swine bred in Edo State, Nigeria”

Comparative distribution of bacterial contaminants of packaged and unpackaged polyherbal products sold in Nnewi, Nigeria

*Udeogu, C. V., Agbakoba, N. R., and Chukwuma, G. O.
Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: The use of herbal medicine continues to remain popular despite advances in orthodox medicine largely as a result of affordability and availability. However, contaminated and potentially toxic polyherbal preparations remain a public health challenge despite regulations instituted by concerned agencies in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the bacterial contaminants of different polyherbal products sold in Nnewi, Nigeria

Methodology: This study evaluated the bacteriological profile of 22 packaged and 22 unpackaged polyherbal preparations sold in Nnewi, Nigeria. The samples were collected from different herbal medicine shops in Nnewi by simple random sampling and were assayed for comparative bacterial loads with chromogenic media and their total viable counts evaluated following standard method for microbial load analysis.

Results: Bacterial contaminants were isolated from 9 of 22 (40.9%) packaged polyherbal samples while 13 of 22 (59.1%) samples were bacteriologically sterile. For the unpackaged polyherbal, bacterial contaminants were isolated from 18 of 22 (81.8%) samples while 4 of 22 (18.2%) were bacteriologically sterile (OR 0.1538, p=0.0122). The most frequently isolated bacterial contaminant in the packaged polyherbal samples was Enterococcus faecalis with 33.3% (6/18) while Salmonella sp was the least frequently isolated with 5.6% (1/18). For the unpackaged polyherbals, the most frequently isolated bacterial contaminant was Staphylococcus aureus with 25% (7/28) while Salmonella sp and E. faecalis were the least frequently isolated with 10.7% (3/28) each. The median total viable count of the packaged group of the polyherbal products was 1.48×106 CFU/ml, while the median total viable count for unpackaged group of polyherbals was 1.95×106 CFU/ml.

Conclusion: This study shows that many polyherbal products sold in Nnewi are potentially contaminated with bacterial agents. It is therefore imperative that herbal medicine practitioners be enlightened on hygienic ways of preventing microbial contamination during polyherbal production.

Keywords: Bacterial contaminants, herbal products, Nnewi, Nigeria Continue reading “Comparative distribution of bacterial contaminants of packaged and unpackaged polyherbal products sold in Nnewi, Nigeria”

Hookworm presenting as acute febrile illness and surgical abdomen

1,2Efunshile, A. M., 1,2Ojide, C. K., 1Nwangwu, C. C., 2Emelobe, G., and 3Akpa, C.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria 

2Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria 

3Department of Haematology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria 

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Hookworm is estimated to infect about 500 million people worldwide. It is usually associated with diarrhoea, abdominal pain and iron deficiency anaemia, but diagnosis can be missed because it sometimes presents unusually or mimics other diseases. We present in this report the case of an 18-year-old asthmatic medical student who was referred to a general surgeon on account of abdominal pain of 8 days duration. His problem started initially with fever, chills and rigor which was managed as malaria but no improvement. The diagnosis shifted from enteric fever to peptic ulcer disease, and his worsening condition was later reviewed as acute abdomen. Abdominal X-ray and ultrasound were normal. Stool microscopy showed numerous ova of hookworm. He was then treated with albendazole leading to full recovery on subsequent follow up. Hookworm disease can mimic a lot of other clinical conditions. A careful review of literature is a reminder that the clinical presentation of hookworm can be diverse and misleading. The current report emphasizes the fact that hookworm should always be considered a possible differential in endemic regions when clinicians are confronted with acute non-malaria febrile illnesses or cases of acute surgical abdomen. 

Keywords: acute abdomen, fever, hookworm. Continue reading “Hookworm presenting as acute febrile illness and surgical abdomen”

Antimicrobial resistance in Madagascar: a review of the current situation and challenges

Rasamiravaka, T.

Laboratory of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Department of Applied and Fundamental Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antananarivo (UA), BP 906, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health threat worldwide occurring in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. It is encouraging that governments of countries around the world are beginning to pay attention to the issue of AMR that serves to undermine the future of modern medicine. However, each country solution approaches to this issue will differ in terms of magnitude and response capacity. Madagascar is a low-income country and one of the poorest countries in the world with poor environmental hygiene practices and easy availability of antimicrobial drugs without medical prescription. These particular contexts certainly influence the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. This review presents reported data on AMR from 2001 to 2018 in Madagascar among the World Health Organization (WHO) priority human pathogens, and determined the scope and magnitude of the AMR problems in the particular context of this low-income country, which could help in formulating effective response strategies for control of AMRs in Madagascar.

Key words: Antimicrobials, Madagascar, Multi-drug resistance, Prevalence

Received December 3, 2019; Revised April 10, 2020; Accepted April 11, 2020
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Résistance aux antimicrobiens à Madagascar: bilan de la situation actuelle et des défis

Rasamiravaka, T.

Laboratoire de biotechnologie et de microbiologie, Département de biochimie appliquée et fondamentale, Faculté des sciences, Université d’Antananarivo (UA), BP 906, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar Continue reading “Antimicrobial resistance in Madagascar: a review of the current situation and challenges”

Phytotherapy as an alternative for the treatment of human papilloma virus infections in Nigeria: a review

*1Yusuf, L., 1,2Bala, J. A., 1Aliyu, I. A., 1Kabir, I. M., 1Abdulkadir, S., 1,3Doro, A. B., and 1Kumurya A, S.

1Microbiology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria, P.M.B 3011, Kano, Nigeria

2Virology Unit, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, 43400, Serndang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

3Federal Medical Centre Katsina, PMB 2121, Katsina, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been incriminated as the causal agent of cervical cancer which has been rated as the second most common cancers among women in developing countries and seventh most common cancers in the developed world. In spite of the fact that HPV has been the major cause of cervical cancer, the dilemma lies in finding a cost-effective therapy. Approximately 291 million women are infected with HPV worldwide, 32% of whom are infected with HPV16 or HPV18. The estimated prevalence of HPV in sub-Saharan Africa is 24% and 11.7% globally. There have been studies reporting specific HPV prevalence rates in some part of Nigeria, with 37% in Abuja, 10% in Port Harcourt, and 26.3% in Ibadan. In the Nigeria population, awareness of HPV infections is low, HPV vaccines are inadequate, and the cost of HPV vaccination per person is beyond what an average citizen can afford. It has been suggested that herbal therapy such as Echinacea therapy reduces HPV replication and enhances the immune system. Although there is yet no scientific proof of the efficacy of Echinacea therapy against HPV infections, future emphasis should be placed on scientific research into this alternative therapy. There is need for more studies on development of antiviral agents against HPV, with a prospect of easy accessibility and affordability in Nigeria.

Keywords: Phytotherapy; HPV; Cervical cancer; Nigeria

Received Feb 23, 2020; Revised March 11, 2020; Accepted March 17, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

La phytothérapie comme alternative au traitement des infections à papilloma virus humain au Nigéria: une revue

*1Yusuf, L., 1,2Bala, J. A., 1Aliyu, I. A., 1Kabir, I. M., 1Abdulkadir, S., 1,3Doro, A. B., et 1Kumurya A, S Continue reading “Phytotherapy as an alternative for the treatment of human papilloma virus infections in Nigeria: a review”

Seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection of cattle in Setif, Algeria

*1Benseghir, H., 2Amara-Korba, A., 1Azzag, N., 1Hezil, D., and 1Ghalmi, F.

1Research Laboratory Management of Local Animal Resources, Higher National Veterinary School, El Alia, Oued Smar, 1615, Algiers, Algeria

2Leptospira unit, Pasteur Institute of Algeria, Rue 1 of Doctor LAVERAN, Hamma Anassers Algiers, Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by Leptospira interrogans responsible for heavy loss both economically and in health, in humans and animals. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection in cattle in the state of Setif, northeastern Algeria.

Methodology: Between the period 2015 and 2019, a total of 48 randomly selected herds of cattle were investigated, and 406 sera from apparently healthy cattle were analyzed using an indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). In order to determine possible risk factors related to leptospirosis, a pre-validated questionnaire was administered to herd owners.

Results: The herd prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo was 31.25% (15/48, 95% CI 19.95–45.33) while the cattle prevalence was 5.42% (22/406, 95% CI 3.61–8.07). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the age of cattle between 3 and 6 years (OR = 9.25; p< 0.03), breeding herd size > 20 cows (OR = 13.65; p< 0.01), and semi-intensive management system (OR = 0.21; p< 0,02) were significantly associated with seropositivity to Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo.

Conclusion: We concluded from this study that Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo is circulating among cattle farms in the state of Setif, Algeria. Furthermore, we recommend more studies to be carried out to prove the infectivity and implementation good hygienic practices among cattle farms and people at risk.

Keywords: ELISA, herds, questionnaire, leptospirosis, prevalence, Algeria

Received Jan 27, 2020; Revised March 10, 2020; Accepted March 11, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Séroprévalence et facteurs de risque associés de l’infection à Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo des bovins à Sétif, Algérie

*1Benseghir, H., 2Amara-Korba, A., 1Azzag, N., 1Hezil, D., et 1Ghalmi, F. Continue reading “Seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection of cattle in Setif, Algeria”

Production and efficacy testing of live attenuated and inactivated vaccines against experimental Salmonella Kentucky infection in broiler chickens

*1Igomu, E. E., 2Fagbamila, I. O., 3Elayoni, E. E., 1Pwajok, D., 1Agu, G. C., 4Govwang, P. F., 5Msheliza, E. G., 5Oguche, M. O., and 6Mamman, P. H.

*1Bacterial Vaccine Production Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B. 01, Vom, Nigeria

2Bacterial Research Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

3Biological Science Department, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

4Livestock Investigation Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

5Central Diagnostic Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria 6Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348032786224

Abstract:
Background: Salmonella Kentucky is of great veterinary and public health concern and exhibits the capacities to emerge as the most prominent Salmonella serotype in human disease. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of prepared live attenuated and inactivated vaccines against experimentally induced salmonellosis caused by S. Kentucky in broiler chickens.

Methods: Field isolate of S. Kentucky was obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Nigeria and used in the preparation of experimental vaccines. Broiler chickens purchased and ascertained to be free of Salmonellae were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of 20 chicks each. Five-bromouracil at a concentration of 1000μg/ml was used in attenuation of S. Kentucky in preparation of the live vaccine and 0.6% formaldehyde was used in inactivation of S. Kentucky for preparation of the inactivated vaccine. Group 1 chicks were immunized with the live vaccine subcutaneously at 0.5ml per bird, group 2 received 1ml of the inactivated vaccine subcutaneously, and group 3 served as unvaccinated/control.

Results: There was 100% faecal inhibition and 100% vaccinal efficacy in broiler chickens immunized with the live vaccine on day 56 of age, and 49.6% faecal inhibition and 82.8% vaccinal efficacy in broiler chickens immunized with the inactivated vaccine on day 56 of age when compared with the unvaccinated control. The vaccinated birds also showed higher antibody (IgY) titre levels from day 21 to day 56 of age (p<0.001) on all sampling days when values were compared with the unvaccinated birds.

Conclusion: The interplay between vaccination protocol that includes administration of live attenuated or inactivated S. Kentucky vaccines and developed antibody (IgY) can reduce intestinal colonization by S. Kentucky and subsequent shedding of the serovar in faeces.

Keywords: Salmonella Kentucky, 5-bromouracil, IgY, Antibody, Vaccine

Received January 9, 2019; Revised April 11, 2020; Accepted April 12, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Production et tests d’efficacité de vaccins vivants atténués et inactivés contre une infection expérimentale à Salmonella Kentucky chez des poulets de chair

*1Igomu, E. E., 2Fagbamila, I. O., 3Elayoni, E. E., 1Pwajok, D., 1Agu, G.C., 4Govwang, P. F., 5Msheliza, E. G., 5Oguche, M. O., et 6Mamman, P. H. Continue reading “Production and efficacy testing of live attenuated and inactivated vaccines against experimental Salmonella Kentucky infection in broiler chickens”

Active tuberculosis among adult HIV-infected patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in a tertiary health facility in Lafia, northcentral Nigeria

*1Audu, E. S., 2Adiukwu, C., 3Bello, S., 4Abdulmajid, S., 4Anyuabaga, B., 5Ashuku, Y. A., and 6Anazodo, M.

1Department of Medical Microbiology/Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

2Department of Internal Medicine, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

3Department of Paediatrics/Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

4Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

5College of Medicine, Federal University, Lafia

6Research Unit, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection is a major problem in Nigeria and other countries that are ravaged by a high burden of both diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV is 16-27 times that of HIV negative persons. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of developing TB, there are factors which predispose those on ART to TB. This study sought to determine the prevalence of TB among adults on ART in our facility and identify the predisposing factors.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study utilizing data from clinical records (folders and electronic) of adult HIV patients who are accessing ART in our facility and have been on ART for at least 6 months. A proforma was used to collect data including demographic, clinical, ART and laboratory information of the patients. The data were entered into SPSS version 23 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis. Associations were tested using Chi square with 95% confidence level.

Results: A total of 457 patients were studied, aged 18-69 years (mean age 38.3± 10 years), and 72.4% females. Majority were married (81%), unemployed (53.8%), had mean baseline CD4 cell count of 267.4 ± 185 cells/mm3 and a mean duration on ART of 100.9± 39 months. Seventeen point three percent of the patients had a previous history of TB before or within 6 months of commencement of ART. Thirteen (2.8%) of the patients had active TB while on ART. Majority of those who had active TB were females (76.9%), married (76.9%), unemployed (46%), had no previous history of TB (53.8%), baseline CD4 cell count of ≤ 350 cells/mm3 and were on first line ART medication. There was however no significant statistical association of active TB with any of these factors.

Conclusion: Few patients had active TB while on ART in this study. The high frequency of TB in those who had low baseline CD4 cell count and baseline WHO stage shows the importance of early initiation of ART in people living with HIV (PLHIV). There is need for regular screening of PLHIV for TB and innovative approaches to get people with HIV to know their TB status as well as early commencement of ART.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, Active Tuberculosis, Antiretroviral therapy.

Received Dec 9, 2019; Revised March 15, 2020; Accepted March 18, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Tuberculose active chez des patients adultes infectés par le VIH ayant accès à un traitement antirétroviral dans un établissement de santé tertiaire à Lafia, au centre-nord du Nigéria

*1Audu, E. S., 2Adiukwu, C., 3Bello, S., 4Abdulmajid, S., 4Anyuabaga, B., 5Ashuku, Y. A., et 6Anazodo, M. Continue reading “Active tuberculosis among adult HIV-infected patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in a tertiary health facility in Lafia, northcentral Nigeria”

Assessment of the performance of six in vitro diagnostic kits for qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in human serum or plasma in Lomé, Togo

*1,2Salou, M., 1Ehlan, A., 2Dossim, S., 1Ali-Edje, K., 1Ouro-Medeli, A., 1Douffan, M., and 1,3Dagnra, A.

1National Reference Center for HIV and STIs (CNR HIV/STI)

2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Togo

3Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Togo *Correspondence to: [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Several in vitro diagnostic (IVD) test kits for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are commercially available. The question is whether they are performing well for both screening and diagnosis or not? Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of six commercially available HBsAg detection kits in Togo.

Methods: This study was conducted at the National Reference Center for HIV/STI testing in Lomé (CNR-VIH/IST), Togo. Reference sera used for the assessment were collected from blood donors and patients with history of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection between 2008 and 2014, and includes 200 non-reactive HBsAg and 150 reactive HBsAg sera that were confirmed with a reference method which consisted of the combination of an ELISA, a RDT, and a molecular test. Four ELISA kits (EKOlab ELISA-HBsAg; HEPALISA ULTRA; HEPALISA; Murex AgHBs Version 3) and two RDTs kits (ACON AgHBs and OnSite HBsAg Rapid Test-Cassette) were then evaluated using these serum samples. The EPI-INFO software version 7.2 was used to determine the 95% confidence interval and performed statistical analysis.

Results: Reference serum samples were collected from the population with 65.0% under 40 years of age and 61.2% males. The sensitivity of the 4 ELISA tests compared to the reference method was 100%. Apart from the HEPALISA test with a specificity of 100.0%, the specificity of the other three ELISA tests (Murex HBsAg version 3, HEPALISA ULTRA and EKOlab ELISA-HBsAg) were 98.4%, 97.3% and 91.8% respectively. For the RDTs, the sensitivity of ACON HBsAg and OnSite HBsAg Rapid Test-Cassette was 70.0% and 95.6% respectively while the specificity was 100.0% for both.

Conclusion: The ELISA tests evaluated were more sensitive than the RDTs, and HEPALISA test was the most efficient. Of the two RDTs, the OnSite HBsAg Rapid Test-Cassette was more sensitive. Our findings highlight the need for onsite verification of in vitro diagnostic kits for qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen before their routine use in Togo.

Keywords: HBV, HBsAg, Performance, IVD test

Received Aug 16, 2019; Revised March 27, 2020; Accepted March 28, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Évaluation des performances de six kits de diagnostic in vitro pour la détection qualitative de l’antigène de surface du virus de l’hépatite B (HBsAg) dans le sérum ou le plasma humain à Lomé, Togo

*1,2Salou, M., 1Ehlan, A., 2Dossim, S., 1Ali-Edje, K., 1Ouro-Medeli, A., 1Douffan, M., et 1,3Dagnra, A. Continue reading “Assessment of the performance of six in vitro diagnostic kits for qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in human serum or plasma in Lomé, Togo”