*1,2Abdulaziz, M. M., 2Ibrahim, A., 3Ado, M., 4Ameh, C., 4Umeokonkwo, C., 5Sufyan, M. B., 4Balogun, M. S., and 6Ahmed, S, A.
1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP)
2Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3Molecular Laboratory, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
4Africa Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET)
5Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria 6Department of Morbid Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected]
Background: The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has categorized dengue fever as a priority epidemic-prone disease. Kano metropolis is a hub for international trade and has seen rapid population growth with unplanned urbanisation. This provides the right environment for dengue virus transmission and spread. Most fevers in Nigeria and Kano in particular are treated as malaria or typhoid. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with dengue fever and dengue-malaria co-infection among febrile patients in Kano metropolis.
Methodology: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among febrile patients attending secondary health facilities in Kano metropolis. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit 440 participants into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect participants’ information, while blood was screened for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit and tested for dengue fever using an ELISA kit for dengue IgM. Data was cleaned and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and Epi Info version 7.2 to calculate frequencies, proportions and odds ratios.
Results: The median age of participants was 24 years (IQR= 13-36 years) while the age-group most represented was the 10-19 years’ age group with 97 (22.9%) participants. Males constituted 257 (60.6%) while most were single 238 (56.1%). Dengue IgM was positive for 332 (78.3%), while malaria RDT was positive for 81 (19.1%) and 67 (15.8%) were positive for both. Those aged above 25 years were less likely to present with dengue fever (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.33-0.97). Dengue fever contributes a high percentage to febrile illnesses seen in Kano metropolis. Significant proportions of febrile patients have both dengue and malaria co-infection. None of the participants had dengue as a presumptive diagnosis.
Conclusion: These findings imply dengue fever should feature as a prominent differential for febrile illnesses and dengue screening tests should be made available for all cases seen in Kano.
Keywords: seroprevalence; dengue fever; RDT; secondary health facilities; Nigeria. Continue reading “Prevalence and factors associated with dengue fever among febrile patients attending secondary health facilities in Kano metropolis, Nigeria”