Sero-prevalence of human parvovirus B19 among patients attending some hospitals in Kano metropolis, Nigeria

A Jegede, M Aminu, EE Ella



Background: Human Parvovirus B19 (HPVB19) belongs to the family Parvoviridae, causes Erythema infectiosum, aplastic crises in persons with blood disorder and prolonged anaemia in immuno-compromised persons. During pregnancy the virus may be transmitted to the foetus which can result in hydrops foetalis, spontaneous abortion or intrauterine foetal death. The study determined the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to HPVB19 among patients in Kano metropolis in order to provide information on their immune status and the possible risk factors for acquiring the virus.
Method: The study population comprised 460 patients seen at the outpatient department of two hospitals in Kano whose mean age was 28.8 (range 0 –70) years. Questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demography and risk factors. Blood sample was collected from each patient, serum was obtained and analysed for IgG antibodies to HPVB19 by ELISA according to manufacturer’s instruction.
Result/Discussions: Sero-prevalence of 41.5% (191/460) was obtained for HPVB19 and seropositivity increased significantly with age with the highest prevalence (51%) recorded among patients ≥51 years old while the lowest prevalence was among those < 1 year old (χ2=13.130, df=6, P=0.04). Seropositivity was higher in female (42.6%: 98/230) than male patients (40.4%: 93/230) (p>0.05). Highest seropositivity was observed among farmers (64.2%:18/28) while the lowest was among retired persons (27.2%:3/11). There was significant association between HPVB19 and level of formal education attained (χ2 =10.363, df=4, P=0.03) and number of persons living in a house (χ2 =14.30, df=1, P=0.00). There was no  association between HPVB19 and marital status (P=0.3) and type of residence (P=0.5). Blood transfusion (OR=2.0:1; P=0.08) and sickle cell anaemia (OR=1.7:1; P=0.08) were important risk factors for HPVB19 transmission in this study. Having blood transfusion showed a 2.0 fold risk while having sickle cell showed a 1.7 fold risk of acquiring HPVB19 infection. During the study, 48.2% of women of child bearing age had antibodies to HPVB19 IgG antibodies leaving about 52% still susceptible to the virus.
Conclusion: Seroprevalence to B19 among patients was low leaving a large proportion of the population especially women in Kano still susceptible to B19 infection.

Keywords: Sero-prevalence, Human Parvovirus B19, Patients, Hospitals, Kano, Nigeria

Download full journal in PDF below

Sero-prevalence of human parvovirus B19 among patients attending some hospitals in Kano metropolis, Nigeria