Sero-prevalence study of parasitic infections among HIV positive and Negative patients in Lagos, Nigeria

AO Sanyaolu, WA Oyibo, NC Iriemenam, OS Badaru



Background: Diseases caused by opportunistic pathogens are the major clinical signs of HIV infected and AIDS patients with parasitic infection being part of the common causes of morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: This was a cross-sectional study to determine the sero prevalence of serum antibodies to three parasitic infections namely Entamoeba histolyticaSchistosoma sp. and Toxoplasma gondii, which are opportunistic infections among HIV/AIDS patients.

Methods: One thousand and eighty patients that attended three healthcare institutions in Lagos were recruited for the study through convenience sampling method. Venous blood was collected from the recruited patients and screened for HIV infection as well as the presence of serum antibodies to three parasitic infections. All positive sera samples were confirmed for HIV infection.

Result: The results revealed that 65/1080 (6%) of the recruited patients were HIV sero-positive. In addition, 5/65 (7.7%) of the HIV positive patients had E. histolytica co-infection, 1/65 (1.5%) had Schistosoma sp. co-infection while 2/65 (3.1%) had T. gondii co infection. The results also indicated that the proportion of patients with E. histolytica was significantly higher among HIV sero-positive patients than the sero-negative patients (P = 0.031).

Conclusion: The study showed the opportunistic potential of the three parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Seropositive, Seronegative, Toxoplasma gondiiEntamoeba histolyticaSchistosoma haematobium

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Sero-prevalence study of parasitic infections among HIV positive and Negative patients in Lagos, Nigeria

AIDS knowledge, attitude and behavioural patterns among high school students in southwestern Nigeria

OO Opaleye, OA Olowe, SS Taiwo, O Ojurongbe, OG Ayelagbe



An evaluation of knowledge, attitude and behavioural patterns of high school students in Oyo and Osun States, Southwestern Nigeria, towards HIV/AIDS was undertaken. A structured questionnaire was administered to respondents from six secondary schools that were selected by systematic random sampling method from the two States. The questionnaire focused on specific aspects of knowledge, attitude and behavioural patterns related to HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission and preventive measures. Results from the study showed that 362 (73%) of the 496 respondents had correct knowledge of the causative agent of AIDS, 69% had correct knowledge of the mode of transmission, 83.2% had correct knowledge of the people at risk and 80.2% had good knowledge of methods of prevention. Attitude toward AIDS victims was however relatively poor with 21% believing that AIDS patients should be isolated and avoided and additional 7% believing that people should not eat or share utensils with AIDS patients. Only 57.7% believed that people should relate freely with AIDS patients. This study showed an improvement in the knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS over a previous one carried out over a decade ago in the same locality, highlighting the importance of mass media campaign programme embarked upon by the States over the years. However, there is need to further increase the awareness campaign especially as it relates to attitude towards AIDS patients and also on information dissemination, which should be more detailed and formal. Incorporating sex education into the curriculum of secondary schools will be a welcome development in stemming the tide of this dreaded disease.

Keywords: knowledge, attitude, sexual behaviour, HIV, AIDS

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 247-252

nfluence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the survival of HIV-infected patients: part report of the Ilorin Trial Center

AK Salami, PO Olatunji, EA Fawibe, PO Oluboyo



This report is part of the ongoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) trial, 167 patients were enlisted, but current analysis was restricted to 107 patients that were about a year old on the programme. The baseline weight, CD4+ cell count and serum albumin of 59 males and 48 females age 15-60 years, were compared with values at 12 months of administration of HAART. Patients mean weight, CD4+ count and serum albumin increased significantly (p-value < 0.05) by 9.7kg, 127.4/uL and 9.1g/L over the enrolment values. Side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs were mild and included; rashes 19.6%, jaundice 7.5% and reactive arthritis 3.5%. Fifty-eight patients (59%) were alive by the end of 1 year, 33 (30%) had died and 11 (10.8%) were lost to follow-up. The risk of death increased 3 times when baseline CD4+ count was less than 116.8/uL (RR= 3.36, 95%CI=1.86– 6.06, P-value = 0.000048). TB/HIV co-infection raised the chance of death twice (RR= 2.33, 95%CI=1.31-4.15, P- value=0.005). In conclusion, the use of triple-drug combination of HAART has led to improved CD4+ cell count and resolution of clinical symptoms in HIV/AIDS patients. These resulted in increased survival.

Key Words: HAART, AIDS, CD4+ cells count and survival.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005:34-39

Liver function tests in HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients and HIV-1 AIDS patients without hepatomegaly in Lagos, Nigeria

PS Ogunro, DP Oparinde, AB Okesina



Hepatic functions were assessed by serum assays of albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB), serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma – glutamyl transferase (GGT) in 51 HIV-1AIDS patients, 38 HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients and 56 age and sex matched healthy HIV negative controls. The mean ± SEM serum ALB concentration of 23.5 ± 1.2 g/L in AIDS patients was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those of HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients and healthy controls; 38.9 ± 3.1g/L and 39.4 ± 2.8g/L respectively. The mean ± SEM TB concentration of 17.8 ± 1.3 μmol/L in AIDS patients was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than 11.7 ± 1.1μmol/L observed in HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients and 10.8 ± 2.1μmol/L in the controls. Similarly, there was a significant elevation (p < 0.05) in serum CB concentration of 6.5 ± 0.9µmol/L in AIDS patients compared to HIV-I infected patients of 3.8 ± 1.0 μmol/L and controls of 3.1 ± 0.8 μmol/L. The mean ± SEM ALT, AST, ALP and GGT activities (iu/L) of 48.7 ± 3.1, 54.3 ± 3.3, 84.8 ± 4.3 and 47.5 ± 4.1 respectively in AIDS patients were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than 21.3 ± 2.9, 25.6 ± 1.3, 56.4 ± 3.2 and 25.1 ± 1.7 respectively observed for the same enzymes in HIV-1 infected patients and 20.1 ± 3.1, 24.5 ± 2.6, 54.6 ± 4.3 and 24.2 ± 2.1 respectively in the controls. These results provide evidence to suggest that hepatic damage is greater in AIDS patients than in HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients even in the absence of hepatomegaly. We conclude that this may be due to opportunistic infections that set in at the later part of HIV-1 infection (i.e. at AIDS stage) or increase severity of HIV-1 infection or both.

Key Words: HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patient, AIDS, Hepatic functions

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 40-45