Antimicrobial activity of moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi, and vancomycin resistant cocci isolated at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

M.D. Mukhtar, S.A. Orah, Y Mohammed



This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi and vancomycin resistant cocci. The plant material was extracted with methanol and petroleum ethe and screened for phytochemical contents. The microbial isolates were obtained from females and males patients (both adults and children) attending ear, nose and throat clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Coccal bacteria and fungi were isolated accordingly. The cocci were screened for vancomycin resistance. The antimicrobial assay was carried out using gradient double (12.5-100mg/mL) assay. The MIC, MBC/MFC and Brine shrimp toxicity test were also conducted. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus pneumoniaeCandida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were isolated. Up to 21.4% of S. aureus were vancomycin resistant, 20% of S. pneumoniae isolated were vancomycin resistant and 16.7% S. pyogenes were vancomycin resistant. The plant extracts showed zones of inhibition of 08mm-20mm at concentrations ranging from 12.5-100mg/mL. The most susceptible organism to both extracts was C. albicans and the least susceptible was S. aureus. The MIC of the methanol extracts ranged from 0.78 to 50mg/mL but MBC/MFC ranged from 6.25 to 200mg/mL. The MIC of the petroleum ether was at 50 to 200mg/mL and the MBC/MFC was from 200 to 800mg/mL. The brine shrimp lethality assay showed LC50 value of 93.48μg/mL for Moringa methanol extract while the LC50 value for Moringa petroleum ether extract was 3.691μg/mL. Moringa methanol extract (100mg/mL), showed appreciable activity against the fungal isolates and vancomycin resistant cocci associated with Ear, Nose and Throat symptoms while Moringa petroleum ether extract showed activity only on the fungal isolate C. albicans. The study demonstrated that Moringa methanol extracts was more active than Moringa petroleum ether extracts. The search for novel cytotoxic ingredient in Moringa should be encouraged.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Moringa, Ear, Nose, Throat, Fungi, Vancomycin, Resistant, Cocci

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae causing urinary tract infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso




SS Taiwo, BA Onile



Since the first report in 1967, the incidence of Penicillin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) has risen steadily worldwide, and now complicates diagnostic and treatment strategies for infections due to this organism. More worrisome is the fact that in areas where Penicillin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) has become established, resistance to other antimicrobial agents such as cephalosporins, sulphonamides and macrolides is also common. This development has a grave implication for therapy of life threatening pneumococcal infections like meningitis and septicaemia, with the extended spectrum cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, and the newer macrolides, azithromycin and clarithromycin. The mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is decreased binding of drug to the bacteria cell wall brought about by genetic transformation in bacterial chromosome. Recently, using molecular techniques that can index overall relatedness of the drug resistant pneumococcal isolates, it has been possible to establish clonal dissemination of drug resistant pneumococci across continents, with acquisition of additional drug resistance determinants as a result of “local” antibiotic selective pressures. This is a review of literature on the epidemiology, mechanism of resistance, laboratory identification, treatment, prevention and control of Penicillin Resistant Pneumococci (PRP), with emphasis on the problems of identification and reporting in developing countries.

Key Words: penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae, resistant, extended spectrum cephalosporins.

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 78-107