Pattern of bacterial pathogens of acute Otitis media in a tertiary hospital, South Western Nigeria

S.A. Fayemiwo, R.A. Ayoade, Y.O. Adesiji, S.S. Taiwo



Introduction: Otitis media was reasonably prevalent prior to the use of antibiotics for treatment. In Nigeria, hospital incidence reports indicate that chronic suppurative Otitis media is the commonest. Complications that usually arise as a result of untreated Otitis media are meningitis, brain abscess, keratoma, otosclerosis, and hearing loss. The study aimed at providing information on the pattern of bacterial pathogens of acute Otitis media in LAUTECH Teaching hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving patients with acute Otitis media attending ENT clinic at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Ear swabs were collected from the patients after informed consent. The samples were inoculated on general and selective laboratory media. Bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on each of the bacterial isolates using modified Kirby Bauer disk diffusion.

Results: There were 115 isolates from 98 patients with acute Otitis media. Gram negative bacteria constituted 66.7% of the isolates. The most common organism was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (34.8%). Others were Staphylococcus aureus (30.4%), Proteus spp (15.7%), Klebsiella spp (11.3%), Escherichia coli (2.6%) and few Fungi (4.1%). Antibiotics sensitivity results of the isolates showed high resistance against most readily available antibiotics. The cumulative resistance of all the bacteria isolates to Augmentin was 89%, gentamicin 80%, ciprofloxacin 34% and ceftazidime 10%. About 88% of the Gram positive bacteria were resistant to penicillin G, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and erythromycin. While 100% of the Gram negative bacteria were resistant to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. However, commonly isolated organisms were highly susceptible to few 3rd-generation cephalosporins especially ceftriaxone and ceftazidime.

Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it is suggested that knowledge of antibiotic profile of etiological agents in Otitis media would be of great advantage in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with Otitis media.

Keywords: Otitis media, Bacterial agents, Antibiotic resistance

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Pattern of bacterial pathogens of acute Otitis media in a tertiary hospital, South Western Nigeria