Characterization of bacteria isolates colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria and in vitro antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia and Alum on the isolates

1Olajide, O. A., *1Kolawole, O. M., 1Bada-Siyede, I. B., 1Ayanda, O. O., and 1,2Suleiman, M. M.

1Infectious Disease and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology,  Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria                            2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Summit University, Offa, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; +234-8060088495

Abstract:

Background: Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms implicated in nosocomial respiratory infections is a major reason for prolonged hospital stay and increased cost of therapeutic treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). This study was designed to isolate bacterial pathogens colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at the Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, and to evaluate antibacterial effects of extracts of Citrus aurantifolia peel and Alum against these bacterial isolates.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional study of 100 randomly recruited hospitalized patients at the Sobi Specialist

Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Throat samples collected from consenting participants were cultured on selective agar media (MacConkey, Eosin-Methylene blue and Mannitol salt) for isolation of bacteria. Identification of isolates from culture plates was done by Gram reaction and conventional biochemical tests while confirmation of the isolates was done by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Antibiotic susceptibility test for each isolate to selected antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, nitrofuran, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) was done by the Kirby Buer disc diffusion method. Aqueous extract of Alum ([KAl(SO4).12H2O]) was done to produce concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (w/v) at pH 3.6 and tested on the bacterial isolates using agar diffusion method. Citrus aurantifolia peel was extracted using methanol and hexane solvents to produce extract concentrations of 500mg/ml, 250mg/ml and 150mg/ml, and tested on the isolates by agar diffusion, and by the broth dilution method to obtain minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of C. aurantifoliaContinue reading “Characterization of bacteria isolates colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria and in vitro antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia and Alum on the isolates”

Bacteriological quality of community well water and public health concerns in Enugu urban, Nigeria

1Obikpo, L., 2Onyia, F. C., 1Offe, I. M., 1Ezeilo, C. M, 3Ezebialu, C., and *4Afunwa, R. A.

1Department of Biological Sciences, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu State, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

3Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

4Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Water is a basic necessity used by humans for both domestic and industrial uses. Next to air, water is essential to life. It takes up about 71% of the earth’s surface. The objective of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of well water in Enugu urban, Nigeria

Methodology: A total of 60 domestic wells were selected from Abakpa, Obiagu and Achara layouts in Engu urban, Nigeria by stratified random sampling method, with 20 wells selected from each area based on location of well sites and construction parameters. Water samples were collected from each well using a sterile 200ml plastic bottle for bacteriological analysis to estimate total bacteria count in colony forming unit (cfu)/ml, total coliform count in most probable number (mpn)/100ml, and faecal coliform count in most probable number (mpn)/100ml. Bacterial isolates were identified using Gram reaction and conventional biochemical tests including catalase and coagulase for Gram positive bacteria, and oxidase, citrate utilization, hydrogen sulfide, indole, urease, methyl red, Voges Proskauer, and sugar fermentation tests for Gram negative bacteria. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of each isolate was performed by the disk diffusion method against selected antibiotics including penicillin G (10μg), ciprofloxacin (5μg), streptomycin (10μg), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20/10μg), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (25μg), and result interpreted using the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) break points. Comparative statistics of the data was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Bacteriological quality of community well water and public health concerns in Enugu urban, Nigeria”

Phenotypic identification of soil bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting an archaeological monument at Augustine University, Ilara Epe, southwest Nigeria

*Ajayi, A. A., Onipede, G. O., Okafor, B. C., Adepoju, K. A., and Nwabuenu, J. C.
Department of Biological Sciences, Augustine University, Ilara Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: The Sungbo Eredo Monument is an ancient public work with a system of defensive walls and ditches located in Eredo Local Council Development Area of Epe, Lagos State, southwest Nigeria. A huge section of the monument cuts through the Augustine University campus, forming two-sided vertical walls with a deep ridge in-between. The objective of this investigative study is to determine the microbial profile of soil samples from the monument in the University campus.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from the topsoil at a depth of 7.5cm from four randomly selected points along the edge of the monument. The samples were transported to the microbiology laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences of Augustine University for analysis. Samples were cultured on Nutrient agar (NA) and incubated aerobically for 24-48 hours for bacteria isolation and on Sabouraud’s Dextrose agar (SDA) for 72 hours for fungi isolation. Bacterial colonies on NA were preliminarily identified to genus level by Gram reaction and conventional biochemical test scheme for Gram-positive (catalase, coagulase, starch hydrolysis) and Gram-negative isolates (oxidase, urease test, indole, methyl red, Voges Proskauer and sugar fermentation tests). Fungi colonies on SDA were identified using conventional macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates to selected antibiotics was done using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Continue reading “Phenotypic identification of soil bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting an archaeological monument at Augustine University, Ilara Epe, southwest Nigeria”

The role of Escherichia coli in the etiology of piglet diarrhea in selected pig producing districts of central Uganda

*1Obala, T., 2Arojjo, S. O., 1Afayoa, M., 1Ikwap, K., and 1Erume, J.

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda 2College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda *Correspondence to [email protected]; +256773884308

Abstract:
Background: Pig production in Uganda is highly constrained by rampant piglet mortalities with diarrhea being a key feature. The present study was conducted to determine possible involvement of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as agents of diarrhea in piglets and elucidate the factors for their spread and virulence, towards development of mitigation strategies in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda. Continue reading “The role of Escherichia coli in the etiology of piglet diarrhea in selected pig producing districts of central Uganda”

A retrospective study of antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients in two Lebanese hospitals for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019)

1Sakr, S., 2Abboud, M., 3Tawbeh, K., 1Hamam, B., and *1Sheet, I.

1Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese International University, Lebanon

2Haroun Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

3Department of Mathematics and Physics, School of Arts and Sciences,
Lebanese International University, Lebanon
*Correspondence to: imtith[email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Misuse of antibiotics is the leading factor promoting emergence of bacterial resistance, a situation that has become a serious public health challenge. Among the leading bacteria that have developed resistance to antibiotics are Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which have caused infections in patients, resulting in considerable mortality. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess antibiotic resistance rates of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical specimens in two Lebanese hospitals between the years 2018 and 2019.

Methodology: Bacteria isolated from routine clinical specimens collected from hospitalized patients in two hospitals, Haroun and Bekaa, in Lebanon for 2018 and 2019, were analyzed. Bacteria isolation and identification were carried out at the laboratory of each hospital using conventional microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testings (AST) of each bacterial isolate to antibiotics were performed by the disc diffusion test and interpreted using EUCAST, CLSI or WHO/AST guidelines. Comparisons of the mean resistance rates of each isolate to individual antibiotics by year of isolation were done using the Z-test and p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Continue reading “A retrospective study of antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients in two Lebanese hospitals for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019)”

Prevalence and factors associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia in University Hospital of Befelatanana, Madagascar

*1Rakotovao-Ravahatra Z. D., 2Randriatsarafara, F. M., 3Rakotovao, A. L., and 3Rasamindrakotroka, A.

1Laboratory of Joseph Raseta Befelatanana, University Hospital, Antananarivo, Madagascar

2Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antananarivo, Madagascar

3Medical Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antananarivo, Madagascar *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +261 34 09 301 20

Abstract:
Background: The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major cause of nosocomial bacteraemia. The objectives of this study are to describe the antibiotic resistance pattern of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae responsible for bacteraemia and identify factors associated with these infections in a University Hospital in Madagascar. Continue reading “Prevalence and factors associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia in University Hospital of Befelatanana, Madagascar”

Coagulase negative staphylococci in Anti-Cancer Center, Batna, Algeria: antibiotic resistance pattern, biofilm formation, and detection of mecA and icaAD genes

1*Zatout, A., 2Djibaoui, R., 2Kassah-Laouar, A., and 3Benbrahim, C.
1Laboratory of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of Abdlhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algeria
2Central Laboratory of Biology, Anticancer Center of Batna, Algeria
3Laboratory of Microbiology Applied to the Agroalimentary Biomedical and the Environment, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University Abou BekrBelkaid, Tlemcen, Algeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are normal microbial flora found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. Considered for a long time as avirulent commensals, these bacteria are now recognized as opportunistic pathogens by virtue of their high resistance to multiple antibiotics and capacity for biofilm formations, which made them important agents of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The objectives of this study are to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm formation, and to detect mecA and icaAD genes in clinical CoNS isolates from Batna’s Anti-Cancer Center (ACC) in Algeria. Methods: A total of 66 CoNS were isolated from different samples and identified by API Staph system. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of each isolate to selected antibiotics was determined by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxacillin and vancomycin were determined by E-test. Biofilm formation was assessed by Tissue Culture Plate (TCP) and Congo Red Agar (CRA) methods. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify mecA gene in 9 oxacillin-resistant and 1 oxacillin-sensitive CoNS, and icaAD gene in 9 biofilm forming and 1 non-biofilm forming CoNS. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of 1 mecA and 1 icaAD positive isolates was performed by the Sanger method. Results: Nine species of CoNS were identified, with Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=29, 44%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=15, 22.7%) constituting the largest proportion, and isolated mainly from the onco-haematology service unit of the center. The isolates were resistant to penicillin G (98.5%), cefoxitin (80.3%) and oxacillin (72.2%). The TCP method was more sensitive (89.4%) than CRA method (31.8%) in detecting biofilm formation. The mecA gene was detected in 66.7% (6/9) of oxacillin resistant CoNS and the icaAD gene in 55.6% (5/9) of TCP positive CoNS isolates Conclusion: Invitro resistance to methicillin (oxacillin) and biofilm formation were high among the CoNS isolates in this study, but the association of these with respective carriage of mecA and icaAD genes was low.

Keywords: Coagulase negative staphylococci, identification, antibiotic resistance, biofilm, PCR

Received April 26, 2019; Revised October 2, 2019; Accepted October 5, 2019
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License (//creativecommmons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Staphylocoques à coagulase négative au Centre Anti-Cancer du Batna, Algérie: résistance aux antibiotiques, formation de biofilms et détection des gènes mecA et icaAD

1*Zatout, A., 2Djibaoui, R., 2Kassah-Laouar, A., et 3Benbrahim, C.
1Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Biologie Végétale, Département des Sciences Biologiques, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Abdlhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algérie
2Laboratoire Central de Biologie, Centre Anti-Cancer (ACC), Batna, Algérie
3laboratoire de Microbiologie Appliquée à l’Agroalimentaire au Biomédical et à l’Environnement, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen, Algérie
Correspondance à: [email protected]
Coagulase negative staphylococci in Algeria Afr J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2020; 21 (1): 21-29

Abstrait :

Contexte: Les staphylocoques à coagulase négative (CoNS) sont une flore microbienne normale présente sur la peau et les muqueuses humaines des mammifères. Considérés depuis longtemps comme des commensales avirulentes, ces bactéries sont reconnues comme agents pathogènes opportunistes grâce à leurs multiples propriétés coexistantes de résistance aux antibiotiques et de formation de biofilms qui constituent des agents importants d’infections nosocomiales et communautaires. l’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la résistance aux antibiotiques, la formation de biofilms et pour rechercher des gènes mecA et icaAD dans les isolats cliniques de staphylocoques à coagulase négative du Centre Anti-Cancer (AAC) de Batna en Algérie. Méthodes: au total de 66 des SCN ont été isolés de différents prélèvements et identifiés par galerie API Staph. Le test de sensibilité aux antibiotiques In vitro de chaque isolat par rapport aux antibiotiques sélectionnés a été déterminé par la méthode de diffusion sur disque, et les concentrations minimales inhibitrices (MICs) de l’oxacilline et de la vancomycine ont été déterminées par E-test. La formation de biofilm a été évaluée par la méthode de culture de tissu en plaque (TCP) et la méthode de Rouge Congo Agar (CRA). La réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) a été utilisée pour amplifier l’ADN du gène mecA dont 9 des SCN résistants à l’oxacilline et 1 sensible à l’oxacilline et le gène icaAD dont 9 des SCN formant biofilm et 1 non-formant biofilm. Le séquençage de l’ADNr 16S des isolats positifs, 1 mecA et 1 icaAD ont été réalisés par la méthode de Sanger. Résultats: Neuf espèces des SCN ont été identifiées avec Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=29, 44%) et Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=15, 22,7%) constituant la plus grande proportion, et isolées principalement de l’unité de service d’onco-hématologie du centre. Les isolats étaient résistants à la pénicilline G (98,5%), à la céfoxitine (80,3%) et à l’oxacilline (72,2%). La méthode TCP était plus sensible (89,4%) que la méthode CRA (31,8%) dans la détection de la formation de biofilm. Le gène mecA a été détecté dans 66,7% (6/9) des SCN résistants à l’oxacilline et le gène icaAD dans 55,6% (5/9) des isolats positifs des SCN pour CRA. Conclusion: La résistance à la méthicilline (oxacilline) in vitro et la formation de biofilms étaient élevées chez les isolats des SCN de cette étude, mais leur corrélation avec le portage respectif des gènes mecA et icaAD était faible.

Mots-clés: Staphylocoque à coagulase négative, identification, résistance aux antibiotiques, biofilm, PCR

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Coagulase negative staphylococci in Anti-Cancer Center, Batna, Algeria: antibiotic resistance pattern, biofilm formation, and detection of mecA and icaAD genes

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Otitis externa in a tertiary care hospital in Zagazig, Egypt: isolated pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns

1*Allam, A. A. E., 2Tantawy, A. E. E., 2Mohamed, K. A. E., 3El ghamrey, N. A. M., 1Morad, E. A., and 1El Shafei, M. A. E.

1Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt 2ENT Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt 3ENT specialist, Egypt Ministry of Health and Population *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +20155777174, +201227989609

Abstract:

Introduction: Recurrent otitis externa is a worldwide problem. This study aims to identify the different aetiological organisms isolated from otitis externa and their sensitivity to different antibiotics. Methods: A total of 27 patients with clinical presentation of otitis externa for a period of three weeks or more were enrolled for the study. Two swab samples collected from each infected ear were cultured for bacterial and fungi, and growth identified using standard microbiological methods including analytical profile index (API) system. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by the disk diffusion technique. Results: Thirty one organisms were isolated from the 27 patients; 12 (38.7%) fungi and 19 (61.3%) bacteria species. Aspergillus spp was the most frequently isolated organism (35.4%) while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated bacteria (19.3%), and was most sensitive to amikacin. Four of 11 patients with Aspergillus infection showed clinical resistance to econazole local treatment but had complete clinical response to itraconazole oral treatment.

Conclusion: Otitis externa in Egypt is caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria or fungi, and the most causative organisms are Aspergillus spp and Ps. aeruginosa.

Keywords: Otitis externa, antibiotic resistance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

Egypt Received June 25, 2019; Revised September 3, 2019; Accepted September 19, 2019
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License (//creativecommmons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

 

Otite externe à l’hôpital de soins tertiaires de Zagazig, en Égypte: agents pathogènes isolés et leur profil de sensibilité aux antibiotiques

1*Allam, A. A. E., 2Tantawy, A. E. E., 2Mohamed, K. A. E., 3El ghamrey, N. A. M., 1Morad, E. A., et 1El Shafei, M. A. E. 1Département de microbiologie médicale et d’immunologie, Faculté de médecine, Université de Zagazig, Égypte 2Département d’ORL, Université de Zagazig, Faculté de médecine, Égypte 3spécialiste ENT, Ministère égyptien de la santé et de la population
*Correspondance à:[email protected]; +20155777174, +201227989609

Abstrait:
Introduction: L’otite externe récurrente est un problème mondial. Cette étude vise à identifier les différents organismes étiologiques isolés d’une otite externe et leur sensibilité à différents antibiotiques. Méthodes: Un total de 27 patients présentant une présentation clinique de l’otite externe sur une période de trois semaines ou plus ont été inclus dans l’étude. Deux échantillons de prélèvement prélevés sur chaque oreille infectée ont été mis en culture pour détecter la présence de bactéries et de champignons, et leur croissance a été identifiée à l’aide de méthodes microbiologiques standard, notamment d’un système d’indice de profil analytique (API).

sensibilité aux antibiotiques de bactéries isolées a été réalisée par la technique de diffusion sur disque. Résultats: Trente et un organismes ont été isolés parmi les 27 patients; 12 espèces de champignons (38,7%) et 19 espèces de bactéries (61,3%). Aspergillus spp était l’organisme le plus fréquemment isolé (35,4%), tandis que Pseudomonas aeruginosa était la bactérie la plus fréquemment isolée (19,3%) et était la plus sensible à l’amikacine. Quatre des 11 patients infectés par Aspergillus ont présenté une résistance clinique au traitement local à l’éconazole, mais ont présenté une réponse clinique complète au traitement oral à l’itraconazole. Conclusion: L’otite externe en Egypte est causée par une bactérie ou un champignon résistant aux antibiotiques. Les organismes les plus responsables sont Aspergillus spp et Ps. aeruginosa.

La Otitis externa in Egypt Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2020; 21 (1): 60-65

Mots-clés: otite externe, résistance aux antibiotiques, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Égypte

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Otitis externa in a tertiary care hospital in Zagazig, Egypt: isolated pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns

Occurrence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Communal Water Sources in Ogun State, Nigeria

BT Odumosu, AR Akintimehin

 

Abstract

The role of Enterobacteriaceae in dissemination and reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes in outbreaks of disease and infections are pressing public health concern. This study is aimed at investigating the antibiotic resistance patterns and ESBL production in water-borne Enterobacteriaceae recovered from some selected drinking water sources among 6 towns in
Ogun State (Nigeria). Sixty water samples were collected from boreholes and well waters sources, of these samples 68 Enterobacteriaceaeincluding Enterobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia spp were recovered and identified presumptively using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. The susceptibilities of the isolates to nine antibiotics were carried out by disk diffusion method and determination of ESBL production was by double-disk synergy method. Of the 68 isolated strains tested, 1 (1.47%) was susceptible to all the
antibiotics, 98.5% of the isolates were resistant to . 1 antibiotics and 75% were found to be resistant to . 2 classes of antibiotics. Incidence of water-borne ESBL-producing enteric in this study was 7.14%. The increasing unabated spread of Enterobacteriaceae in public water supply harboring resistance genes portends a high risk for communal outbreaks. This necessitates an urgent precautionary and antibiotics surveillance measures in Nigeria.

KeywordsEnterobacteriaceae, antibiotic resistance, ESBL

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Occurrence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in Communal Water Sources in Ogun State, Nigeria

Pattern of bacterial pathogens of acute Otitis media in a tertiary hospital, South Western Nigeria

S.A. Fayemiwo, R.A. Ayoade, Y.O. Adesiji, S.S. Taiwo

 

Abstract

Introduction: Otitis media was reasonably prevalent prior to the use of antibiotics for treatment. In Nigeria, hospital incidence reports indicate that chronic suppurative Otitis media is the commonest. Complications that usually arise as a result of untreated Otitis media are meningitis, brain abscess, keratoma, otosclerosis, and hearing loss. The study aimed at providing information on the pattern of bacterial pathogens of acute Otitis media in LAUTECH Teaching hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving patients with acute Otitis media attending ENT clinic at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Ear swabs were collected from the patients after informed consent. The samples were inoculated on general and selective laboratory media. Bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on each of the bacterial isolates using modified Kirby Bauer disk diffusion.

Results: There were 115 isolates from 98 patients with acute Otitis media. Gram negative bacteria constituted 66.7% of the isolates. The most common organism was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (34.8%). Others were Staphylococcus aureus (30.4%), Proteus spp (15.7%), Klebsiella spp (11.3%), Escherichia coli (2.6%) and few Fungi (4.1%). Antibiotics sensitivity results of the isolates showed high resistance against most readily available antibiotics. The cumulative resistance of all the bacteria isolates to Augmentin was 89%, gentamicin 80%, ciprofloxacin 34% and ceftazidime 10%. About 88% of the Gram positive bacteria were resistant to penicillin G, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and erythromycin. While 100% of the Gram negative bacteria were resistant to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. However, commonly isolated organisms were highly susceptible to few 3rd-generation cephalosporins especially ceftriaxone and ceftazidime.

Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it is suggested that knowledge of antibiotic profile of etiological agents in Otitis media would be of great advantage in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with Otitis media.

Keywords: Otitis media, Bacterial agents, Antibiotic resistance

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Pattern of bacterial pathogens of acute Otitis media in a tertiary hospital, South Western Nigeria