Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of five medicinal plants used against bacterial infections in Jalingo, Nigeria

*1Zenoh, D. A., 2Josephus, B., 3Halley, N., 1Endurance Okpan., 1Henry Chukwuemeka., and 1Akumbo Gemenen

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria
2Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria
3Federal Medical Center Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: zenoh.d@tsuniversity.edu.ng; +234 8053852525

Background: The prevalent utilization of medicinal plants in communities underscores their promise as antimicrobial agents amid rising antibiotic resistance. This study assesses five medicinal plants; Bambusa vulgaris, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Heteropogon contortus, Moringa oleifera, and Carica papaya against clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae.

Methodology: Five medicinal plants were chosen based on traditional knowledge and ethnobotanical practices. Phytochemical analysis followed standard methods. Plant extracts were prepared using ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and hexane. Various concentrations (R conc., D1 conc., D2 conc, D3 conc, and D4 conc) of the extracts were evaluated using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and broth dilution methods to ascertain antimicrobial properties, including minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC).

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed abundant saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, notably higher with ethanol extraction. Hibiscus sabdariffa demonstrated potent activity against S. Typhi with inhibition zone diameters of 29.00 mm (R conc), 27.00 mm (D1 conc), 14.00 mm (D2 conc), and 4.00 mm (D3 conc). Heteropogon contortus exhibited activity against S. dysenteriae with inhibition zone diameter of 25.05 mm (R conc), 15.00 mm (D1 conc), 10.00 mm (D2 conc), and 5.00 mm (D3 onc). The inhibition zone diameters of B. vulgaris were 18.50 mm (R conc), 17.00 mm (D1 conc), and 10.00 mm (D2 conc) against S. dysenteriae. The MIC and MBC were similar for both organisms, with H. sabdariffa (MIC: D3-4.27 mg/mL, MBC: D1-68.25 mg/mL) and H. contortus (MIC: D3-4.69 mg/mL, MBC: R-75.00 mg/mL), while M. oleifera, C. papaya, and B. vulgaris had negligible antimicrobial activity. Conclusion: Hibiscus sabdariffa and H. contortus exhibited potent antimicrobial effects against Salmonella, with MICs of 4.27 mg/mL and 4.69 mg/mL, and MBCs of 68.25 mg/mL and 75.00 mg/mL respectively. Their consistent low MICs against Shigella suggest their potentials for antibiotic production.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agent, Antibiotic resistance, Plant extracts, MIC, MBC