‘Metastatic seed’ of cholera in Edo State, Nigeria: a case report

*1,3Adewuyi, G. M., 1,3Samuel, O. S., 1Unuane, A. E., 2Iraoyah, K. O., 1Onuha, G. O.,   1Otumu, O. T., and 1Ogbue, J. I.

Departments of 1Medical Microbiology/Parasitology and 2Internal Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria   *Correspondence to: gbolawuyi@yahoo.com; ORCiD: 0000-0002-8976-5565


There were reported cholera epidemics in some States in Nigeria. Cholera is an acute diarrhea disease with marked epidemic propensity, caused by colonization of the small intestine by Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 or 0139. Cholera, like other infectious diseases epidemics, has propensity for sending metastatic seed to any susceptible remote community. If the metastatic seed can be promptly diagnosed and managed appropriately, the spread and development of new epicenter can be aborted. This report is a case of metastatic cholera who presented in a tertiary hospital in Edo State, Nigeria. The case was promptly detected and effectively managed using good surveillance system, inter-departmental collaboration, swift responses, good laboratory practices, patient isolation and infection prevention and control measures, coupled with appropriate fluid and antimicrobial treatments. This prevented cholera epidemic in the hospital and Edo State in general. Continue reading “‘Metastatic seed’ of cholera in Edo State, Nigeria: a case report”

Global trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus and emerging challenges for control

O Azeez-Akande



Background: Following its first recognition in early 1960s, the increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has become a global problem. The emergence of multiple-drug resistant MRSA strains and dissemination of epidemic antibiotic clones including presence of wide spectrum of virulence and predisposing risk factors complicate diagnosis, chemotherapy and control causing significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of MRSA strains in domestic animals and protozoan has widened the epidemiologic characters of the organism and may influence infection control policies. Objectives: To review the emergence and epidemiologic spread of resistant strains of MRSA, molecular/genetic basis of resistance in the organism and challenges facing control strategies worldwide. It also aims to suggest intervention strategies so as to checkmate the spread of MRSA infections.
Methods: By reviewing local and international literatures on MRSA infections coupled with practical experience in the field of this endeavour. Result/Conclusion: MRSA has shown increasing endemic and epidemic spread in the last four decades causing serious medical and socio-economic difficulties. Routine and regular surveillance (uncommon in poor-resourced developing areas of especially sub-Saharan Africa), good hospital practices and personal hygiene, public enlightenment, development of effective therapeutic agents and rational administration of antibiotics based on reliable test results will limit the spread of MRSA infections.

Key words: MRSA, incidence, morbidity, mortality, surveillance, control.

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Global trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus and emerging challenges for control


AO Oluwasola, DO Oluwasola, KO Osungbade



Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic disease with a wide range of cutaneous and ocular manifestations. It is caused by the tissue nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and it is transmitted by the bite of a female black fly, Simulium damnosum. Onchocerciasis is a serious public health and socio-economic problem with 95% of all cases being found in Africa south of the Sahara. The WHO Expert Committee has estimated that over 80 million people are at the risk of infection worldwide, some 18 million infected, and 1 million people visually impaired of which some 340,000 are blind. Nigeria is highly endemic for this disease, to the extent that 40% of all cases worldwide are believed to occur in the country. The prevalence of blindness in villages near to fast flowing rivers may reach 15%, often, affecting males (of working age, perhaps 30-40 years old) more frequently than females. In spite of these ravaging consequences of this disease however, remarkable successes have been achieved by the control effort of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP), which uses chemical and biological larvicides with low environmental impact to kill black fly larvae flies. Other methods of effecting Onchocerciasis control include: (i) Reducing the number of bites by the Simulium fly on man; (ii) Killing the microfilariae with microfilaricides; and (iii) Killing the adult worms. The social and economic consequences of the disease in Nigeria and other African countries are huge, with considerable human suffering. It thus demands unrelenting intensive and concerted effort at the international, national and community levels, making optimal use of the identified modes of control for effective control of this disease which has serious public health and economic consequences.

Key Words: Onchocerciasis, Public Health, Control

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5(2): 165 – 172.