Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in an antenatal clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

RK Obi, SC Umeh, OH Okurede, II Iroagba



A total of ten thousand and thirty two (10,032) pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Braithwaite Memorial Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria were screened between January 2000 to December 2004 for the possible occurrence of hepatitis B virus using HBV paper strips. The results showed that a total of 290 (2.89%) of the pregnant women tested positive for hepatitis B Virus. The years 2001 and 2002 had the highest prevalence of 61, while 2004 had the least prevalence of 52. No significant difference (P<0.5) was however observed in the annual prevalence of the infection among pregnant women in the hospital. Studies of the age distribution of the infection among the studied pregnant women showed that women in the age group of 41-45 had the highest prevalence rate (60%) for the sampled population within that age group, followed by women in the age group of 31-35 with an occurrence rate of 11.04% within that age group. The least rate of occurrence was observed in the age group of 21-25 which showed only 1.75%. The prevalence of the deadly hepatitis B virus among pregnant women whose immunity is often compromised by gynaecological and nutritional factors is of grave clinical importance.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 78-82

Evaluation of Sida acuta subspecie acuta leaf/flower combination for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents

Alhaji Saganuwan Saganuwan, Gulumbe Mohammed Lawal



Sida acuta subspecie acuta Ieaf/flower combination was evaluated for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents using methanol, hexane, chloroform and aqueous method of extractions. The antibacterial activities were exhibited by the four extracts on E. coli, S pyogenes, P.multocida and S. typhumrium as there was no activity exhibited on S. tyhi, S. pneumoniae and K. phneumoniae. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and saponin whereas steroid and glycoside were absent.

Keywords: evaluation, sida, acuta, leaf, flower, antimicrabial, phytochemical, constituents

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 83-88

Resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the upper respiratory tract of persons attending various clinics of a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria – a preliminary study

OO Oduyebo, DU Nwaka, C Nwaowolo, FT Ogunsola



The upper respiratory carriage rate, serotypes and resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in persons attending four clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were determined. Nasal swab specimens were collected from a total of 372 persons, 175 of whom were males and 177 were females. Their ages ranged from 14 weeks to 65 years. The upper respiratory carriage rate found in the total population of both adults and children was 9.9%, but the rate was highest in children less than 5 years (18.6%). Among the 17 isolates that were available for serotyping, there was no significant serotype, though resistant serotypes like 23F. 19F. 6A and I4 were identified. Initial oxacillin screening for penicillin resistance revealed that 12 out of 36 isolates were clearly sensitive, but combined with the result of Etest, penicillin resistance was found to be 6.8%. Susceptibility testing by disc diffusion revealed that 80.5% of isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone and 94.4% to chloramphenicol. Sixty one percent were sensitive to erythromycin while 94.4% were resistant to co-trimoxazole and 80.5% to tetracycline. Except for amoxicillin and cefotaxime which showed high activity, sensitivity pattern by Etest was found to be similar to that of disc diffusion. The result of this study makes it possible to formulate hypothesis for a larger study. In this study. the carriage rate of S. pneumonia probably ranged from 2.6% to over 18.6% depending on the study population. If the limitations of this study are excluded in a larger study, the rate most likely will be higher. Also, penicillin resistance in carriage strains would be up to 6.8%, probably higher, but may be intermediate, so penicillin could still be useful for treatment of pneumonia and probably otitis media, but not meningitis. There is reason to watch out for increased resistance to penicillin, cephaloporin and erythromycin. Most pneumoeoccal isolates would likely be resistant to tetracycline and co-trimoxazole.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 89-97

Immunoprotectivity of attenuated turkey poxvirus in turkey poults and broiler chicks

EM Odoya, A Abegunde, BG Agyogbo, SO Omatainse, NI Ogo, MF Ogo, PN Gida



In Nigeria, fowl pox vaccine is used in all categories of poultry. However there has been reports of outbreak of turkey pox virus in poults previously vaccinated with fowl pox vaccine. Pox Lesion from poults was excised for isolation of virus and viral propagation in chorioallantoid membrane. Turkey pox virus were isolated from the infected turkeys and confirmed by infecting susceptible turkeys with the isolate to reproduce the disease. Persistence of both turkey poults and broiler chickens to challenge after vaccination with attenuated turkey poxvirus was confirmed.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 98-100

HIV seroprevalence rates among prospective service personnel in a Nigerian security facility

EE Nwokedi, A Aminu Taura, AI Dutse, A Bukar



Background: There is no doubt that the greatest health problem threatening the human race in these times is the HIVIAIDS pandemic. The greatest burden of this scourge is in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the joint United Nations Committee on HIVIAIDS (UNAIDS), over 40 million people have been infected with the disease as of the end of 2001 and of which over 28 million are in sub-Saharan Africa. These are the group presenting themselves for paramilitary recruitment in Nigeria.

Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study is firstly to analyse the results of the HIV antibodies screening and confirmatory tests in order to determine the seroprevalence rate of HIV infection among this prospective service personnel. Secondly, to compare the prevalence rates between the males and females. Finally, to compare the seroprevalence rate in 2003 with that of 2002 among similar group.

Methodology: A total of 900 consecutive prospective recruits were screened for HIV antibodies using double technique. Confirmatory tats were then performed on positive sera using Immunoconfirmatory kits. Chi square was used to analyze the results. Of the 900 tested 8l7 are males while 83 are females.

Results: The prevalence is 1.4%. Overall in 2002, out of 431 officers screened in both groups, 8 (1.86%) were positive for HIV antibodies comprising 5 men (1.16%) and 3 women (0.69%). In 2003, out of a total of 900 recruits tested for HIV seropositivity, 13 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive with a 95% confidence interval of 1.0% to 1.8%.

Discussion and Conclussion: Our results show a seroprevalenee of 1.44% among members of this security outfit and it is quite low compared to the national average of 5%. Our findings are low compared to seroprevalenee rata among ANC clients, Tb patients, STD clients and blood donors. However, it is comparable to 1.7% among another group of paramilitary in 2002, 1.4% among people with leprosy and 1.8% in Jigawa State sentinel survey. Health education is advised.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 101-105

Prevalence of intestinal-parasites and its association with sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral factors in children in Pokhara valley, Nepal

Rabindranath Das, Pradipta Swain Kumar, R Biswas



No Abstract.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 106-115

Recent trends in management of malaria in pregnancy

A AG Jimoh



Malaria remains a significant causal factor in both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in this environment though it is essentially preventable. There are increasing incidence rates worldwide, including those areas of the world where, hitherto, malaria infection was rare. More women than before now present with clinical malaria in pregnancy with both obstetric and non-obstetric complications, including severe anaemia, IUGR, miscarriage etc. Recent rapid diagnostic tests are available, more sensitive and specific than microscopy but their applications are limited in scope. Antimalarial Combination Therapy (ACT), Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT), Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs), good and adequate antenatal (ANC), intraparturn and postpartum care will ensure optimal health and reduction in the incidence rate of malaria infection in pregnancy.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 116-124

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Recent trends in management of malaria in pregnancy

Viruses cancer – an overview

MO Buhari, JO Omotayo



Viruses were initially seen as unusual agents that caused cancer in animals but were o f no relevance to humans. They are now accepted as bonafide aetiologic factors o f human cancers. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process and in virally associated human cancers, the viruses appear to be necessary but are not sufficient for tumour development. Viruses possess genes with potential to modulate host responses and through this means, they evade detection and recognition by the immune system. The mechanism o f transformation o f a normal cell into a neoplastic cell can either be direct or indirect. Better understanding o f the role o f viruses in human cancer will have therapeutic implication as control can be instituted.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 125-131

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Viruses cancer – an overview

Overview and experience with the use of fluoroquinolone in children in the tropics

Olanrewaju T Adedoyin, Temitope O Obasa, M Olufumilayo Olgoge



The use of fluoroquinolone is contraindicated in children because of the potential complication of arthropathy. In spite of this, the role of ciprofloxacin is becoming increasingly significant. We report two cases in which organisms that did not respond to the use of some other potent antibiotics clearly responded to the use of ciprofloxacin. A general overview of the fluoroquinolones is also highlighted. It is concluded that ciprofloxacin is a very useful agent in the management of serious infections in children and available data clearly supports its use where the efficacy outweighs any considerable risk. Fluoroquinolone is therefore recommended in children where it offers a clear therapeutic advantage over other classes of antibiotics but not for routine empirical use.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 132-135

Outbreak of turkey pox disease in fowl pox vaccinated poults in Vom Plateau State of Nigeria

EM Odoya, A Abegunde, BG Agyogbo, SO Omatainse, E Gwankat, UG Okpara



An outbreak of poxvirus infecting 45 turkeys of 8 weeks of age is reported. Poults were previously vaccinated against pox using fowl poX vaccine. The outbreak persisted for 5 weeks with 100% morbidity hut no mortality. The cutaneous form only existed. Turkey pox virus was isolated by propagation in chorioallantoid membrane and confirmed by reproducing the disease in susceptible turkeys.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 136-138