Ap-PCR typing of carbapenem sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa iIsolated from clinical samples

H D Binnet, G Uraz



In this study the antibiotic susceptibility of 51 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical samples were detected by the disc diffusion test. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa strains were found as respectively 55% amicacin, 43% aztreonam, 75% netilmycin, 68% sefepim, 73% ceftazidim, 76% ciproflaxacin, 37% gentamicin, 84% meropenem, 76% piperasillin/tazobactam, 47% tobramycin and 84% imipenem. These results show that carbapenems are the most effective antibiotics for P. aeruginosa strains and the efficacy of meropenem and imipenem are high for P. aeruginosa strains Molecular typing profiles of 43 P. aeruginosa strains which are sensitive to meropenem and imipenem antibiotics with AP 1 primary were determined in AP-PCR. As a result of AP-PCR molecular typing study of this 43 P. aeruginosa isolate, no correlation was found out between antibiotic sensitivities and molecular types. This situation once again reveals that reasonable antibiotic usage in absolutely

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 64-68

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In vitro Phenotypic Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles Of Food Indicator Bacteria Isolated From Home-Made Oral Rehydration Solutions In Nigeria

AAO Ogunshe, IL Amusan, AO Oyediran



One thousand and ten bacterial isolates from ORS constituents characterised as Bacillus cereus var. mycoides, Bacillus subtilis, Citrobacter sp., Clostridium perfringes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella dysentariae, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae were screened for their in vitro antibiotic susceptibility profiles using the agar discs and agar well-diffusion methods. The Gram-negative bacteria from granulated sugar samples had 7.69% phenotypic resistance profiles while the Gram-negative bacteria from table salt samples had between 13.3% and 20.0% resistance profiles. The resistance profiles of Gram-positive bacteria from granulated sugar samples was between 8.0% and 19.0% while the Gram-positive bacteria from table salt samples had between 11.0% and 27.9 % resistance profiles towards the test antibiotic (discs). The bacterial isolates from granulated sugar exhibited resistance of between 36.4% in ampicillin + cloxacillin and 64.9% in metronidazole. while the bacterial isolates from table salt gave an overall resistance of 41.0% – 64.7% towards the twenty-eight test oral paediatric antibiotic suspensions All the bacterial isolates from the table salt and granulated sugar samples displayed multiple resistance to the test paediatric antibiotics, except Ps. aeruginosa SA12, Shigella dysenteriae SA16C, SA16D, E. aerogenes SA18A, SA18AE and E. coli SA22A which recorded no (0.0%) resistance to all the test paediatric antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotics, In vitro, ORS, paediatric, resistance, susceptibility

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 69-77

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Rubella IgG antibody in women of child-bearing age in Oyo state

OA Adesina, JA Adeniji, MO Adeoti



230 females of childbearing age from four different towns in Oyo State were screened for rubella specific IgG antibody using a sandwich ELISA test kit. Rubella IgG was detected in 215 (93.5%) of the females. 96% of the non-pregnant, 87.5% of the primigravida and 76% of the multigravida screened positive to the antibody. Ogbomoso, Ibadan, Oyo and Iseyin respectively had 96.1%, 94.2%, 90.5% and 88.2% of their samples positive for the rubella IgG antibody in them. It is imperative for the government to ensure that rubella vaccine is made available and routine so as to avert the risk of congenital rubella syndrome.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 78-81

The pattern of the frequency of hbsag, hbeag, anti-hcv and anti-hbe in patients with haemoglobin genotype HbSS and HbSC in a rural community

MF Olaniyan



Sixty HbSS sickle cell anaemic patients aged 17.45 ±10.1years (Female=30, Male=30) and sixty HbSC sickle cell disease patients aged 20.6±11.0years(Female=30,Male=30) were recruited for the investigation. Haemoglobin genotype of each of the patient was determined by electrophoresis. HepatitisB‘s’ antigen, HBeAg,anti-HBe, and anti-HCV in patients’ plasma were determined by Enzyme Immunoassay.
The frequencies of HBsAg, anti-HBe, HBeAg +HBsAg, HBsAg + antiHBe, in HbSS(6.7% , 20%,13.3%, and 20% respectively) were higher than those of HbSC( 5% ,8.3%, 5% , and 3.3% respectively). The frequency of anti-HCV + anti-HBe in HbSC was higher compared with that of HbSS patients ( 3.3% Vs 0%).The frequency of HBeAg in female HbSS and HbSC patients was higher than their male counterparts.( HbSS:16.7%Vs 10%;HbSC:6.7% Vs 3.3%).Higher frequency of HBsAg was found in HbSS male patients than the females (26.7% Vs 13.3%).The frequency of anti-HBe in HbSS male patients and HbSC female patients was higher than those of HbSS female patients and HbSC male patients respectively( HbSS:10% Vs 3.3%; HbSC: 10% Vs 6.7%).The frequency of HBeAg+ HBsAg obtained in HbSS male patients and HbSC female patients was higher than the results obtained from HbSS female patients and HbSC male patients (HbSS: 16.7% Vs 10%; HbSC:6.7% Vs 3.3%).The frequency of HBsAg + anti-HBe in HbSS female patients was higher than in HbSS male patients.(23.3% Vs 16.7%).None of the patients plasma was found to contain both HBeAg + anti-HBe. This research work has therefore been used to examine the pattern of HBeAg, HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HBe in the plasma of patients with haemoglobin genotype HbSS and HbSC in rural community.

Keywords: Pattern, Frequency, HepatitisB, Hepatitis C, Antibody, Surface (‘s’) and Envelope (‘e’) antigens.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 82-87

Susceptibility profile of yeast-like organisms isolated from HIV/AIDS patients; using NCCLs macrodiltion method compared with agar diffusion technique

CA Enwuru, A Ogunledun, N Idaka, NV Enwuru



Yeast like opportunistic fungal infection has been reported globally amongst HIV/AIDS patients, particularly as the etiologic agent of oral thrush. Fluconazole antibiotic has been most popularly employed in treating cases of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients. Recent reports have recorded antifungal drug resistance amongst immunocompromised subjects. This constitutes a big problem in the management of opportunistic candidiasis. The NCCLS micro/macrodilusion sensitivity testing procedure is expensive, cumbersome and requires a level of sophistication. This study was designed to compare NCCLS M-27-A macrodilution method (expensive) with agar diffusion technique (cheap and simple), to provide a reliable rapid alternative to the new pressing need for antifungal routine sensitivity testing. Sputum specimens from 213(108 females and 105 males) HIV positive patients were plated onto SDA. The isolates were identified by morphotyping, microscopy and speciated using germ tube test, and battery of biochemical sugar fermentation; and assimilation tests. Fluconazole agar diffusion susceptibility testing was carried out on each isolate, compared with the NCCLS macrodilution sensitivity assay standard.
Of the 74 isolates tested for fluconazole sensitivity, 59(79.7%) were sensitive (zone diameter > 19mm, mean diameter 28mm), 6(8.1%) were Sensitive Dose Dependent (S-DD) (zone diameter 13-18mm, mean diameter 16mm), while 9(12.2%) were resistant (zone diameter < 12mm) using agar diffusion method, matched with 58(78.4%) sensitive MIC < 8μg/ml, 9 (12.2%) S-DD MIC 16-32μg/ml and 7(9.5%) resistant MIC >64μg/ml profile, using the NCCLS macrodilution assay. The differences between the test method (Agar diffusion) and the control standard method (NCCLS-M 27-A broth Macrodilution MICS) were not statistically significant using t-test (two tail) (t = 4.302656, P=1.0). Among the C. albicans isolates, 26(86.7%) were sensitive to fluconazole. The rank of susceptibility was C. albicans > C. tropicalis > C. krusei.
It is concluded that broncho-oro-pharyngeal Candida and other yeast-like species existed in about one third of the HIV and AIDS patients studied; in which C. albicans was the most prevalent, while about ten percent of all the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The reliability of germ tube production as a confirmatory test for Candida albicans in HIV infection was as high as 96.7% and is therefore, recommended for continued use. Agar diffusion compared favourably with the NCCLS macrodilution technique, hence it is recommended for routine antifungal sensitivity test on all isolates of yeast-like cells from HIV and AIDS subjects.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, oral thrush, yeast-like cells, fluconazole resistance, NCCLS vs agar diffusion technique.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 88-96

Onchocerciasis Amongst Children Of An Endemic Community In Edo State, Nigeria

MS Aisien, EE Adeyemi, VA Wagbatsoma



Onchocerciasis among 278 children (0-15yrs) of Ekpan village, a hyperendemic community in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria was investigated using the prevalence of nodules as index. The overall prevalence of palpable nodules was 26.3%. Nodule prevalence increased with age and the association was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001). More males than females presented with onchocercal nodules; and the difference was also found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). Majority of the nodules found were located on the head, followed by the abdomen. Of the 186 children eligible to take ivermectin, only 124 (66.7%) actually took the drug. The efficacy of ivermectin against onchocerciasis is demonstrated in the observation that those who took the drug presented with fewer nodules. Therefore, a timely introduction of eligible children (>5yrs) to the treatment programme is advocated.

Keywords: Onchocerciasis, children, Nigeria, nodules, prevalence, ivermectin

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 97-102

The Prevalent Bacterial Isolates Of Dental Caries In School Age Children Attending The Dental Clinic Of Oauthc, Ile-Ife

RE Hassan-Olajokun, AA Folarin, O Olaniran, AN Umo



The study was conducted at the dental clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife. A total of 100 carious samples were collected from children of varying age and sexes. The bacteria isolated were S. mutans: 45.6%, Lactobacillus spp: 41.2% and S. aureus: 13.2%. Out of the 100 samples, 88(5) had mixed growth of bacteria and the common bacteria combinations were S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp.(43.2%) , S. mutans and.S. aureus (38.6%) and Lactocillus spp and S. aureus (18.2%)The distribution pattern of dental caries in relation to gender showed a higher frequency in females than males with the initiator S. mutans having 565.8% in female and 44.2% in males. The organisms appear to be more prevalent in children of 6-10 years considering the initiator S. mutans being 73.1% while ages 1-5 years were least affected with 5.8%. prevalence. Pefloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin are most effective against the caries-inducing organisms with an average susceptibility range of 76.1% to 92.2%.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 103-108