Non-Attenuation Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 By Laboratory Exposure To Ultraviolet Rays

FO Fasina, AN Egbuji, DA Gado, DC Nyam, AK Olawuyi, CA Meseko, AT Oladokun, HG Ularamu, S Ponman, I Nwagbo



Avian influenza H5N1 represents one of the most researched viruses in laboratories world-wide in recent times with regards to its epidemiology, ecology, biology and geography. The virus has caused 409 human cases and 256 human fatalities to date. Some laboratory activities and other lab related
works predispose certain workers to exposure to this virus. In this work, we assessed the effect of exposure of HPAI infective allantoic fluid to ultraviolet rays for between 15 and 180 minutes. No significant difference was found between the unexposed and exposed viruses. The ability of the virus to haemagglutinate chicken red blood cells, the haemagglutination titre and its pathogenicity in embryonating eggs did not change despite this prolong exposure to UV-light. We call for caution in the handling of HPAI viruses in laboratory inside the microbiological safety cabinet despite sterilization using UV-light.

Characterization Of Biocides Resistant Isolates From Dental Unit Water Line Biofilms By Culture Dependent Approach

I Liaqat, AN Sabri



The importance of biocides resistant bacterial strains in medicine, industry and the environment has gained significant attention. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines is thought to be the result of biofilm formation within the small-bore tubing used for these conduits. Our objectives were to characterize biocides resistant isolates from dental unit water line biofilm (DUWL) using the standard laboratory approaches. Growth curves of isolates established in biocides free and supplemented medium demonstrated less growth in the presence of biocides. O10 | P a g e ptimum pH was 7 whereas; optimum temperature was 37°C. Isolates showed resistance against multiple of heavy metals while fewer antibiotics. Genetic studies were accomplished by performing conjugation and transformation experiments. In two isolates (AWT 21 and PTNPF) transconjugants were observed, while no transformant was recorded in any case. Overall, the findings of this study can be used to profile the metabolic effects of new biocides or biocide combinations upon biocides
resistant biofilm isolates from clinical environment.

Effect Of Instructions About The Method Of Urine Collection And Storage On The Isolation Rate Of Urinary Bacteria In Children

SI Adeleke, G Ihesiulor



A study of 65 children (29males and 36females) and aged between four weeks and 15years with significant bacteriuria was undertaking over a six month period to determine the effects of instruction received about the methods of urine collection and storage on the prevalence of urinary tract infection. The commonest clinical presentation was fever (64.6%). Only 22(35.4%) of the patients had specific symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infections. The instructions about urine collection were given to 48(73.8%) care givers. This instruction was given by the attending doctors (84%). Despite the explanation, 15(23.1%) of the patients collected the urine samples wrongly and 44(67.7%) stored the samples for longer than one hour. Significant bacteriuria was more prevalent in 74.2% of patients who submitted their urine samples more than one hour after collection. Communication skill is important and should be emphasized in the trainings of health workers in procedure on the patients.

Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in Kano, Nigeria

BOK Nwankwo, S Abdulhadi, A Magagi, G Ihesiulor



Background: Nosocomial infection caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) presents with management difficulties in infected patients due to their resistance to a number of other frontline antibiotics and constitutes
significant epidemiological problems. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in clinical isolates in Kano. There is dearth of  information on
this subject in Kano.
Method: One hundred and eighty five (185) S. aureus isolates from various clinical specimens obtained over a 12-month period in the Microbiology Department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) were subjected to methicillin susceptibility testing, while including susceptibility testing to other antibiotics by the disc diffusion methods.
Result: Out of 185 S. aureus isolates tested, 53(28.6%) were found to be methicillin resistant. While 38(62%) isolates were obtained from in-patients, 15(28%) were from out-patients. Surgical wound infection had the highest prevalence of 32(60%) isolates. Antibiotics sensitivity results of methicillin susceptible staphylococcus aureus MSSA) and MRSA with the third generation cephalosporins and the quinilones were encouraging. All
MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin.
Conclusion: A prevalence of 28.6% MRSA in this environment calls for urgent intervention strategies due to its possible rapid spread and therapeutic problem.

Brands Of Ampiclox Against Clinical Strains Of Staphylococcus aureus

OE Adeleke, ME Coker, JO Oluwagbohun, AD Fatoyinbo



Proliferation of different brands of antibiotics including ampiclox (a notable penicillinase inactivator) was considered a relevant factor in the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently the antibiogram and susceptibility of 20 clinical strains and a control strain (NCTC 6571) of Staphylococcus aureus to 10 different brands of ampiclox were determined by disk diffusion and tube broth dilution methods. The control strain was
found sensitive to ampicilin, augmentinR and cloxacillin in the antibiogram, and to all the l0 brands of ampiclox, with the MIC’s of either 0.125 or 0.25μg/mI among the clinical strains. This result, compared with the MIC’s obtained in the range of 0.125μg/ml to > 60μg/mI, varying among the brands of ampiclox against the 20 clinical strains, indicates contrasting inhibitory activity among the different brands but reflective of the worrisome level of resistance to antibiotics by Staph. aureus. However, this resistance to most of the brands of ampic1ox could not be associated with brand variation having found the control strain sensitive to all the brands of ampiclox.

Prolonged Use Of Cough Formulations And The Health Risk From Their Antimicrobial Activity On Some Normal Bacterial Flora

OE Adeleke, OS Alabi, OA Adetoyi



Cough formulations were observed to contain some chemical substances that have been associated with antimicrobial property, namely: menthol, honey, citric acid and volatile oils. A prolonged use of such formulations by patients was therefore considered a health risk on the normal bacterial flora. Nine cough formulations denoted by letter codes along with simple syrup B.P., absolute alcohol and sterile distilled water as controls, were investigated for relative antimicrobial activity on some normal flora bacteria by the agar-cup diffusion method. The respective individual single brands of cough formulation with the exception of one brand exhibited inhibitory activity against 5 – 1 2 bacterial isolates including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Streptococcus faecalis, Strep. pneumoniae, Strep. viridians, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Simple Syrup B.P. and sterile distilled water did not exhibit any antibacterial activity while the absolute alcohol exerted activity only on Staph aureus. The antimicrobial activity recorded for the cough formulations could cause a depletion of the normal bacterial flora following a prolonged use of the formulations tested, hence, the attendant health risk of depressed natural immune system of the body, normally associated with such bacteria.

Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella And Escherichia Coli Isolated From Day-Old Chicks, Vom, Nigeria

AL Anyanwu, FO Fasina, OT Ajayi, G Rapu, MM Fasina



Reports of large scale mortality of day-old-chicks were received at the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria in 2007 to 2008. We investigated the cause of death using several virological and bacteriological techniques, isolated the pathogenic agents and carried out sensitivity tests. Our investigation revealed that Escherichia coli and Salmonella organisms were isolated in the outbreaks. A pattern of antibiotic resistance that seems to be increasing was also found. Considering the role of chickens and its products in the human food chain in Nigeria; and the close interaction between poultry and man, these resistant organisms may pose dangers to humans through the food chain or zoonotic infection and precipitate a similar pattern of resistance in man. We advocated for informed use of antibiotics in the food animals, especially poultry.

Socio-Demographic Characteristics Of Adults Screened For Hiv/Aids In A Rural Community In Benue State, Nigeria

MS Odimayo, SO Adediran, MO Araoye



Background: Benue state has been considered among the ‘hot zones’ for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria with a prevalence rate of 9.3 among adults aged 15 to 45 years. Yet, there is paucity of information on the socio-demographic factors associated with this level of prevalence. We hereby report the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with HIV among adults in Abwa-Mbagene, Benue state, Nigeria.

Methods: Adults in Abwa-Mbagene community who accepted to participate between 9th and 24th of August 2007 were recruited. After counselling, screening was done using ‘Determine HIV’ kit.

Results: 153 subjects (74 males and 79 females) were recruited. Their age ranges from 15 to 60 years (Mean: 26.2years). Fourty-two (27.5%) consisting of 12 (16.2%) males and 30 (38%) females were positive for HIV (male to female ratio, 2:5). The prevalence of HIV was higher among the divorcees (50%); those whose level of education was primary school (41.3%) and below and; farmers (60%). Majority (96%) knows AIDS exists, 85% are informed on mode and prevention of HIV transmission. Cases of AIDS deaths, unprotected casual sex, blood transfusion with unscreened blood and polygamy are common in the community. The single most important cultural factors in HIV transmission identified is indulgence in night parties, which increased the rate of unprotected casual sex.
Conclusion: This community represents a high HIV/AIDS prevalence spot in Benue State, Nigeria. There is therefore the need for the establishment of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT), Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT), save blood and antiretroviral treatment services in the community. Vocational centers to engage single women and improve their financial state will boost preventive strategies. Finally, partnership with community leaders towards discouraging night parties will reduce the prevalence of HIV in the community

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Socio-Demographic Characteristics Of Adults Screened For Hiv Aids In A Rural Community In Benue State Nigeria