Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune Complexes In Vitamin Deficient Mice Infected With Plasmodium berghei

OG Arinola, DI Onubogu, LS Salimonu



Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured spectrophotometrically using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. The mean spleen weight, liver weight and CICs of vitamin deficient mice or vitamin deficient P. berghei infected mice were reduced compared with those of well-fed mice. However, the reduction in spleen weight was significant in vitamin deficient mice from day 15-post vitamin deficiency compared with well-fed mice. Also, the reduction in liver weight was significant in vitamin deficient mice at day 5- and day 10-post vitamin deficiency compared with well-fed mice while the reduction in liver weight was significant in vitamin deficient P. berghei infected mice at day 5-, day 10-, day 15- and day 20- post P. berghei infection compared with well-fed mice. The reductions in the levels of CICs were significant in both vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient P. bergheiinfected mice compared with well-fed mice from day 5-post P. berghei infection or day 5-post vitamin deficiency. The observed decreased CICs in vitamin deficient mice accompanied by reduction in liver and spleen weights showed that vitamin is essential in mounting effective immune response against malaria.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 95-99

Use Of Injectable Anti-Malarials Among Patients In Selected Health Facilities In Ilorin, Nigeria

TM Akande, SO Kolawole, GF Medubi



Irrational use of injectable antimalarial is commonplace in developing countries. This descriptive survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of injectable antimalarials use and factors related to this practice in selected health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria. A total of 356 outpatients were interviewed in the selected health facilities and available clinical records checked. Awareness of both oral and injectable antimalarials is fairly high among the respondents. Injectable antimalarial was the most preferred form by the patients. Request for injectable antimalarial was significantly more among educated patients and those attending private clinics and health centers. Among respondents 90.3% had ever used injectable antimalarial. Use of injectable antimalarial irrespective of clinical indications is common practice. Rational practices in the prescription of antimalarial and promotion of oral therapy need to be widely encouraged among health workers in developing countries. This will reduce the hazards associated with unnecessary injections and also reduce cost.
Key words: Injectable antimalarial, use, health facilities.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 101-105

Review Article: Epidemiology of Malaria in Africa

TM Akande, IO Musa



Malaria is a life threatening parasitic disease transmitted by female anopheles mosquitoes. There are four types of human parasites; Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, P ovale and P. falciparum. P. falciparum and P. vivax are the most common and P. falciparum, the most deadly type of infection, is most common in sub-Saharan Africa. A large number of environmental factors affect the distribution, seasonality and transmission intensity of malaria. Rainfall provides breeding sites for mosquitoes and increases the humidity, which enhances their survival. While malaria is largely endemic in Africa, varying proportion of countries in the continent are at risk of endemic malaria. Today, approximately 40% of the world population, mostly those living in the world’s poorest countries, is at risk of malaria. This is mostly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. There are at least 300 million acute cases of malaria each year globally resulting in more than a million deaths, around 90% of these occur in Africa, mostly young children. In areas of stable malaria transmission, very young children and pregnant women are the population at highest risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. The populations most at risk of epidemics are those living in highlands, arid and desert-fringe zones and those living in areas where successful control measures have not been consolidated or maintained.
Key words: Epidemiology, Malaria, Africa

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 107 – 111