Characterization of bacteria isolates colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria and in vitro antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia and Alum on the isolates

1Olajide, O. A., *1Kolawole, O. M., 1Bada-Siyede, I. B., 1Ayanda, O. O., and 1,2Suleiman, M. M.

1Infectious Disease and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology,  Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria                            2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Summit University, Offa, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; +234-8060088495

Abstract:

Background: Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms implicated in nosocomial respiratory infections is a major reason for prolonged hospital stay and increased cost of therapeutic treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). This study was designed to isolate bacterial pathogens colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at the Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, and to evaluate antibacterial effects of extracts of Citrus aurantifolia peel and Alum against these bacterial isolates.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional study of 100 randomly recruited hospitalized patients at the Sobi Specialist

Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Throat samples collected from consenting participants were cultured on selective agar media (MacConkey, Eosin-Methylene blue and Mannitol salt) for isolation of bacteria. Identification of isolates from culture plates was done by Gram reaction and conventional biochemical tests while confirmation of the isolates was done by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Antibiotic susceptibility test for each isolate to selected antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, nitrofuran, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) was done by the Kirby Buer disc diffusion method. Aqueous extract of Alum ([KAl(SO4).12H2O]) was done to produce concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (w/v) at pH 3.6 and tested on the bacterial isolates using agar diffusion method. Citrus aurantifolia peel was extracted using methanol and hexane solvents to produce extract concentrations of 500mg/ml, 250mg/ml and 150mg/ml, and tested on the isolates by agar diffusion, and by the broth dilution method to obtain minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of C. aurantifoliaContinue reading “Characterization of bacteria isolates colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria and in vitro antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia and Alum on the isolates”

Impact of decalcification on antibacterial properties of eggshell against selected poultry pathogens

*1Balogu, T. V., 1Chukwueze, B. C., and 2Okonkwo, T. P.

1Department of Microbiology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

 

Abstract:

 Background: Eggshell which is primarily composed of more than 98% calcium carbonate crystal, serves as the physical protective and active barrier structure of egg content. Recently, antimicrobial properties of eggshell are fast becoming center of interest among stakeholders of poultry industry. However, few studies have focused on the rigidity factor of calcium components of eggshell as antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was designed to determine the effect of decalcification on the ability of eggshell to inhibit common poultry and egg bacterial pathogens.

Methods: Raw eggshell denoted as calcified eggshell (CES) and decalcified eggshell (DES) were extracted and made into fine powder. Standard protocol was used for preparations of CES and DES at concentrations of 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg/ml, and their antibacterial assays on selected bacterial pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) were performed by agar diffusion method. Gentamicin 80mg solution (CC1) and distilled water (CC2) served as controls. Data were analysed with SPSS version 20.0 and presented as mean±SD for descriptive statistics. Friedman’s two-way test ANOVA was used to compare the differences in mean values between CES, DES, CC1 and CC2 at significance level of p<0.05. Continue reading “Impact of decalcification on antibacterial properties of eggshell against selected poultry pathogens”

Antibacterial Activities of Different Brands of Deodorants Marketed in Owerrri, Imo State, Nigeria

BC Egbuobi, GC Ojiegbe, JN Dike-Ndudim, PC Enwuru

 

Abstract

Body odour caused by bacterial growth is of great concern to those affected. To ameliorate this, deodorants, which are substances applied to avert body odour, are designed and used. These deodorants are claimed to have antibacterial activities. This work was therefore, carried out to determine the antibacterial activities of the deodorants marketed in Owerri municipality. Owerri is the capital of Imo State of Nigeria. To determine this, twenty (20) deodorants from ten (10) different manufacturers made up of fourteen (14) roll-on and six (6) sprays were assessed using punch -hole plate diffusion technique on nutrient agar plates. The deodorants were purchased from Ekeonunwa market, New market, Relief market, and some supper markets, all in Owerri Municipality. These deodorants were tested against Laboratory isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis obtained from Federal Medical Centre (FMC) and Modesty Medical Laboratory Owerri and reconfirmed using morphological and biochemical tests. Out of the twenty (20) deodorants tested, 18 (90%) were active against the organisms, 17 (85%) were active against Staphylococcus epidermidis, 15 (75%) against P. mirabilis, 11 (55%) against E. coli and 10 (50%) against P. aeruginosa. It was also observed that deodorants “roll – on” were more active 14 (100%) than the deodorants “sprays” 4 (66.6%). From this study, it was observed that the deodorants tested had antibacterial activities.

Key words: Deodorants, Antibacterial, body, odor

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Antibacterial Activities of Different Brands of Deodorants Marketed in Owerrri, Imo State, Nigeria