COVID-19 and Dengue co-infection in paediatric patients: An endemic in a pandemic

Pavani, S., Srinath, M., Sultana, W., Rani, V. S., *Mehreen, S. F., and Ravi, V.

Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad-500095, Telangana, India

*Correspondence to:; +91 8500499786

Authors have equal contribution to the study



Background: The clinical presentation and outcome of COVID-19 are likely to be complicated by co-infection with other endemic viruses such as Dengue. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 and Dengue viruses in paediatric patients from Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Continue reading “COVID-19 and Dengue co-infection in paediatric patients: An endemic in a pandemic”

Seroprevalence Survey of Rubella Antibodies among Pregnant Women in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

SO Oyinloye, CA Amama, R Daniel, BB Ajayi, MA Lawan



Rubella is a vaccine- preventable viral infection. Its etiologic agent, rubella virus was identified as a human teratogen
capable of causing spectrum of birth defects described as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the pregnant mother is
infected within the first trimester of pregnancy. A total of 90 pregnant women attending a secondary health care
facility in Maiduguri were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
kit (Cortez Diagnostics Inc. USA). Of these, 37.8% (34/90) and 83.3% (75/90) were seropositive for anti-rubella IgM (x2
Cal 5.1; p=0.05) and IgG respectively. Chi-square analysis (x2 Cal 38.38, p=0.05// x2 tab 31.41, p=0.05) revealed an
association between miscarriage and IgG antibody level in twenty-one subjects. Pregnant women within 20-24years
had the highest prevalence of 40% (36/90)( x2 Cal 4.22, p=0.05) : 44.4% (16/36) of them were seropositive for IgM (x2 Cal
4.31, p=0.05). A marked surge in IgG antibody level, which tantamount acute infection, was observed in 15.6% (14/90)(
x2 Cal 19.85, p=0.05) of the pregnant women. Pregnant women in the first trimester seropositive for anti-rubella IgM
were 36.4% (4/11), inferring that the fetuses of these women are susceptible to sequelae of rubella. This result
highlights the consequence of rubella infection and confirms continuous circulation of rubella virus in the study area.
There is need for vaccination of vulnerable population in order to ensure the control /elimination of rubella virus in

Key words: Rubella virus, teratogen, antibodies, Maiduguri


La rubéole est une infection virale évitable par la vaccination. Son agent étiologique, virus de la rubéole a été identifié
comme un tératogène humain capable de provoquer le spectre de malformation congénitale décrite comme le
syndrome de rubéole congénitale (SRC) si la femme enceinte est infectée au cours du premier trimestre de la
grossesse. Au total, 90 femmes enceintes fréquentant un établissement de soins de santé secondaires à Maiduguri ont
été dépistées pour le dosage des anticorps IgM et IgG à l’aide de kit immunoenzymatique (ELISA) (Cortez
Diagnostics Inc. USA). Parmi elles, 37,8% (34/90) et 83,3% (75/90) étaient séropositives respectivement pour les
anticorps anti-IgM (X2 Cal. 5,1, p=0,05) et IgG de la rubéole. L’analyse Chi-carré (X2 Cal. 38,38, p=0,05 /X2Tab. 31,41,
p=0,05) a révélé une relation entre la fausse couche et le niveau d’anticorps IgG dans vingt-et-un sujets. Les femmes
enceintes de 20 à 24 ans ont eu la plus forte prévalence de 40% (36/90) (X2 Cal. 4,22, p=0,05): 44,4% (16/36) d’entre elles
étaient séropositives pour les IgM (X2 Cal. 4,31, p=0,05). Une augmentation remarquable de taux d’anticorps IgG, équivalent à l’infection aiguë, a été observée chez 15,6% (14/90) (X2 Cal. 19,85, p=0,05) de femmes enceintes.Les femmes
enceintes au premier trimestre, séropositives aux IgM anti-rubéole, ont été de 36,4% (4/11), déduisant que les foetus de
ces femmes sont sensibles aux séquelles de la rubéole. Ce résultat souligne la conséquence de la rubéole et confirme la
circulation continue du virus de la rubéole dans la zone d’étude. Il est nécessaire de vacciner la population vulnérable
afin d’assurer le contrôle et/ou l’élimination du virus de la rubéole au Nigeria.

Mots clés: virus de la rubéole, tératogènes, anticorps, Maiduguri

Article in English.

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Seroprevalence Survey of Rubella Antibodies among Pregnant Women in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Prevalence of Rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin-g and -m in pregnant women attending two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria

OT Obijimi, AB Ajetomobi, WP Sule, DO Oluwayelu



Background: Rubella is a self-limiting disease that causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when rubella virus (RV) infects women in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Objective: To assess a population of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria for anti-RV IgG and IgM in order to determine the proportions susceptible to the viral infection and infectious to their fetuses.
Method: Ninety consenting pregnant women were consecutively recruited and aseptically bled for the study. The sera were screened with commercial ELISA kits for anti-rubella virus IgG and IgM. Due to the controls and calibrators included in the tests, the IgG test was performed on 89 sera while all 90 samples were screened for IgM.
Results: Of the 89 pregnant women tested for anti-RV IgG, 86 (96.6%) were positive with protective serum concentrations of the antibody. Only six (6.7%, 95% CI: 1.5-11.8%, n = 90) women were positive for anti-RV IgM with 5 (5.6%, 95% CI: 0.8-10.3%) having both anti-RV IgG and IgM. Overall, three (3.4%) of the women were susceptible to RV infection, one (1.1%) of these in the first trimester of gestation was probably infectious.
Conclusion: Majority of the pregnant women had protective levels of anti-RV IgG antibody although susceptibility to rubella as well as level of infectiousness were low. Intensification of rubella immunization of all females of child-bearing age in Osun and Oyo States is advocated.

Keywords: Prevalence, Rubella, Antibodies, Pregnant women, Southwestern Nigeria.

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Prevalence of Rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin-g and -m in pregnant women attending two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria


MM Mya, RK Saxena, A Roy



The roles of causative factors responsible for prevalence of malaria in the village of Solana, India, were studied. Mosquitoes and larvae density in and around the area were measured by process of random sampling and counting their numbers under microscopy. Malaria in population of the village was diagnosed by standard ELISA method and malaria antibody capturing level were measured against three Plasmodium falciparumantigens. The effect of insecticides for the control of malaria was also evaluated. Results of study showed that more than two third of village human populations (75%) were suffering from malaria, with 67.14% being children below 14 years of age. Similarly vectors identification study showed Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi as the main source for infection transmission. Sporozoite positive rate estimated in Anopheles culicifacies was found to be 1.26%. Both vectors were resistant to DDT and Malathion insecticides. Antibody capturing by three different Plasmodium falciparum antigens study showed that glycophospholipid antigen (GPL) was able to capture and detect highest amount of malarial antibody followed by sonicated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) antigen and ring infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) i.e. 0.69±0.22, 0.60±0.22 and 0.59±0.23 respectively. Age specific antibody levels was found to gradually increase from lowest to highest age groups i.e. 0.29– 1.18 for GPL, 0.25-0.94 for RESA and 0.25-0.97 for Pf. The study showed that infants and children are highly prone to malaria attacks than the adult population, which may be as a result of low level of Plasmodium antibody in their circulation.

Key Words: Solana village, endemicity, malaria incidence, antibodies, ELISA, insecticides.

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 2-14