Evaluation of procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial sepsis in adult population in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria

*1,2Idakari, C. N., *2,3Efunshile, A. M., 4Akase, I. E., 1Osuagwu, C. S., 1Oshun, P.,
and 1Oduyebo, O. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/Lagos University
Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/Lagos University
Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected] and [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Prompt antibiotic treatment of sepsis improves the outcome, but dependence on clinical diagnosis for empiric therapy leads to overuse of antibiotics which in turn promotes the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Blood culture takes time and molecular diagnosis may not be available or affordable. The use of procalcitonin (PCT) as a biomarker to guide antibiotic therapy in adults is less established compared to children. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the usefulness of PCT as a biomarker to aid early commencement of antibiotics among adult patients with sepsis in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria.

Methodology: Three hundred patients with clinical diagnosis of sepsis made by the managing physicians were recruited for the study. Criteria used for clinical diagnosis of sepsis include tachycardia, tachypnea, fever or
hypothermia and presence of leukocytosis, bandemia or leucopenia. The patients were selected using systematic consecutive sampling methods. A sepsis work-up including quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA),
white blood cell count (WCC), aerobic blood culture and estimation of serum PCT levels were done for all the participants. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 25.0.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values, accuracy and likelihood ratio of PCT against blood culture, WCC and qSOFA score were determined. Association between variables was measured using Fisher exact
test (with Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval). P-value ˂0.05 was considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Evaluation of procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial sepsis in adult population in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria”

In vitro assessment of the potency of some Newcastle disease vaccine brands in Ibadan, Nigeria

In vitro assessment of the potency of some Newcastle disease vaccine brands in Ibadan, Nigeria
1Okanlawon, A. A., *2Ameen, S. A., 2Kadir, R. A., 2Ambali, H. M., 2Baba, Y. A., 3Azeez, O. M. and 4Owoade, A. A.
1Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for Poultry and Livestock Diseases, CHI Farms Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
3Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; +2348125064091; ORCID: //orcid.org /0000-0002-7453-1133

Abstract:

Background: Newcastle disease (ND) is a very common and economically important disease of poultry. There is no drug for treatment of the disease during an outbreak in poultry flocks, and prevention by vaccination is one of the recommended control measures. However, post vaccination outbreaks have been observed on many occasions in chicken flocks and one of the causes has been attributed to possible failure of vaccine to confer immunity. This study was designed to evaluate the potency of ND vaccines available in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methodology: Haemagglutination (HA) technique and elution phenomenon were employed to evaluate the potency of ND vaccines randomly selected in Ibadan. A total of 45 vaccines comprising 9 brands and 5 different strains were selected for potency test. The vaccine brands included ‘Vireo 116’ (n=10), ‘ABIC’ (n=5), ‘Biovac’(n=9), ‘Nobilis’(n=3), ‘NVRI’(n=12), ‘R2B’ (n=2), ‘BAL-ND’ (n=2), ‘Forte dodge’(n=1) and ‘Jovac’ (n=1), while the vaccine strains in the brands included Lasota, B1, Clone, Komarov, Hitcher, and an unknown strain.

Results: Thirty-five of the 45 (77.8%) ND vaccines tested had more than 4 HA titer (>64) and were therefore regarded as potent. All the 15 (100%) ND Lasota vaccine strain, 7 out of 10 (70%) ND Komarov strain, 4 out of 5 (80%) ND clone and 5 out of 8 (62.5%) ND B1 strains were potent. None of the ND brand ‘R2B’ vaccine as well as Hitchner strain from ‘Nobilis’ brand was potent, but all 5, 2, 1 and 1 vaccines tested from brands ‘ABIC’, ‘BAL-ND’, ‘Fort dodge’ and ‘Jovac’ respectively were potent. Similarly, 9 of 10, 6 of 9, 2 of 3 and 9 of 12 vaccine strains tested from brands ‘Vireo 116’, ‘Biovac’, ‘Nobilis’ and ‘NVRI’ were respectively potent

Conclusion: The occurrence of ND vaccines that are not potent in this study may be contributing to post vaccination failure. It is advisable to subject vaccines to potency test before use.

Key words: in vitro, assessment, potency, Newcastle disease, vaccine brands, vaccine strains Continue reading “In vitro assessment of the potency of some Newcastle disease vaccine brands in Ibadan, Nigeria”

Evaluation of Sida acuta subspecie acuta leaf/flower combination for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents

Alhaji Saganuwan Saganuwan, Gulumbe Mohammed Lawal

 

Abstract

Sida acuta subspecie acuta Ieaf/flower combination was evaluated for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents using methanol, hexane, chloroform and aqueous method of extractions. The antibacterial activities were exhibited by the four extracts on E. coli, S pyogenes, P.multocida and S. typhumrium as there was no activity exhibited on S. tyhi, S. pneumoniae and K. phneumoniae. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and saponin whereas steroid and glycoside were absent.

Keywords: evaluation, sida, acuta, leaf, flower, antimicrabial, phytochemical, constituents

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 83-88