Nasopharyngeal temperature probes: is South Africa’s current decontamination process adequate?

*Davids, R., and Cilliers, C.
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
*Correspondence to:

Background: The standard practice in many institutions incorporates nasopharyngeal probes for temperature monitoring in patients undergoing general anaesthesia. Current disinfection guidelines for these devices are not clear and they are poorly adhered to. In South Africa, these temperature probes are reused and subjected to unstandardized decontamination processes. This study sought to investigate nasopharyngeal temperature probes as possible source for cross-contamination, and assess the efficacy of current disinfection practices for these probes. Continue reading “Nasopharyngeal temperature probes: is South Africa’s current decontamination process adequate?”

Implementation of biosafety in infection control: a 10-year review

*Uwandu, M. O., Ige, F. A., Okwuraiwe, A. P., Onwuamah, C. K.,and Audu, R. A.

Centre for Human Virology and Genomics, Nigeria Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

*Correspondence to:; +2348033467717


Biosafety is an important issue globally, as a line of defence that protects health personnel, public and the environment from exposure to hazardous agents. Most developing nations have weak health systems and consequently weak biosafety. Engaging in an external quality program such as an accreditation process will help build capacity and competence in all areas. The Centre for Human Virology and Genomics (CHVG) laboratory of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria started its biosafety program in compliance to international standards stipulated by ISO 15189:2012, in its journey towards laboratory accreditation. Accreditation is widely used to attest for laboratory competence. In the quest for laboratory accreditation, several processes were implemented to ensure compliance, one of which was biosafety. Simple remedial actions and policies that have worked in other climes were applied over a 10-year period in the CHVG laboratory. A significant drop in nonconforming incidences and laboratory accidents was seen while biosafety audits showed improvement in safety practices.

Keywords: Biosafety, Infection control, audit Continue reading “Implementation of biosafety in infection control: a 10-year review”

Hand hygiene amongst dental professionals in a tertiary dental clinic

J.J Omogbai, C.C Azodo, A.O Ehizele, A Umoh



Objective: To evaluate hand washing attitude and practices among Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in a Nigerian Tertiary Dental Clinic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital was conducted between February and March 2010. Data collection tool was a 28-item, self-administered questionnaire, which elicited information on demography, handwashing practices, material used for handwashing, methods ofdrying hands after washing, attitudes towards prevention of spread of infection by handwashing measures in dental practice, barrier to regular hand washing, information need on handwashing and mode in which they would desire to receive the needed information. Results: One-quarter (25.7%) of the respondents washes their hands before wearing gloves and 98.1% wash their hands when they are visibly soiled. Less than half (46.7%) washed their hand when the worn gloves are torn. Majority strongly agreed that hand washing helps to prevent transmission of infection to patients (91.4%), health workers (92.4%) and health workers family members (89.5%). The main barriers to regular hand hygiene were inadequate facilities, forgetfulness and lack of time. About 69.5% desired more information on hand hygiene with the most indicated area of information needs being the indications and steps in hand washing in form of seminars and pamphlets. Conclusion: This study revealed positive attitude to hand washing, inadequate hand washing practices and poor monitoring of hand hygiene in the health institution. The studied dental professionals however know that hand washing plays an important role in the prevention of cross infection.

Keywords: hand hygiene, dental professionals, tertiary, dental clinic, infection control

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Hand hygiene amongst dental professionals in a tertiary dental clinic


B.O. Olayinka, A.T. Olayinka



The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and 36 asymptomatic bacteriuria isolates from urine samples of ‘healthy’ volunteers within the university community were tested for their susceptibility to various antibiotics and production of b-lactamase enzyme. A total of 27 isolates (31.4%) were methicillin resistant, with 12(44.4%) being methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS). Majority of the isolates tested were resistant to the cheap, readily available broad-spectrum antibiotics; ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin G. All the isolates were resistant to three or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. A total of 14/50 (28%) of the clinical isolates and 17/36 (47.2%) of the ‘community’ isolates from healthy volunteers were resistant to 7 or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. Analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of isolates and the production of b-lactamase enzyme showed that 56 isolates representing 65.1% of the total number tested had an MAR index of 0.5 and above indicating that they probably originated from an environment where antibiotics are frequently used. The implication of these findings for instituting effective control measures aimed at reducing the pool of antibiotic-resistant organisms is discussed.

Key words: Methicillin-resistant, staphylococcus aureus, asymptomatic bacteriuria, infection control
(Af J Clinical & Exp Microbiology: 2003 4(2): 79-90)