A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin

*1Adegboro, B., 2Lawani, O. A., 3Oriaifo, S. E., and 4Abayomi, S. A.
Departments of

1Medical Microbiology & Immunology, and

3Clinical Pharmacology, Nile University, Abuja, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria *Correspondence to: boazadegboro@gmail.com

Ivermectin is an avermectin which is a group of pentacyclic sixteen-membered lactone (macrocyclic lactone disaccharide) derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. It is a semi-synthetic broad-spectrum anti-helminthic, anti-viral and anti-cancer agent. It has a wide safety margin with low adverse effects when it is used orally. It has, however, so far only been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a broad spectrum anti-parasitic agent. Because ivermectin also has broad activities as an anti-viral agent, we herein review its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities, as well as the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted on the drug. It is hoped that this work will pave way for ivermectin being seriously considered as an addition to the drugs available for the management of patients with COVID-19. Continue reading “A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin”

Onchocerciasis Amongst Children Of An Endemic Community In Edo State, Nigeria

MS Aisien, EE Adeyemi, VA Wagbatsoma



Onchocerciasis among 278 children (0-15yrs) of Ekpan village, a hyperendemic community in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria was investigated using the prevalence of nodules as index. The overall prevalence of palpable nodules was 26.3%. Nodule prevalence increased with age and the association was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001). More males than females presented with onchocercal nodules; and the difference was also found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). Majority of the nodules found were located on the head, followed by the abdomen. Of the 186 children eligible to take ivermectin, only 124 (66.7%) actually took the drug. The efficacy of ivermectin against onchocerciasis is demonstrated in the observation that those who took the drug presented with fewer nodules. Therefore, a timely introduction of eligible children (>5yrs) to the treatment programme is advocated.

Keywords: Onchocerciasis, children, Nigeria, nodules, prevalence, ivermectin

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (2) 2008 pp. 97-102

Knowledge, Attitude And Perceptions Of Onchocerciasis In A Hyper-Endemic Community Of Edo State, Nigeria

VA Wagbatsoma, MSO Aisien



An evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and perception of Ekpan, a rural community in Edo State of Nigeria, towards onchocerciasis after 3 years of ivermectin distribution was undertaken. The structured questionnaire administered to the respondents focused on specific aspects of knowledge, attitude and perception related to the disease, its mode of transmission and control activities in the village. Results from the survey showed that 133 (68.6%) had fair knowledge of the disease. All subjects knew the bite of the blackflies was followed by itching but none knew that bites were accompanied by Onchocerca volvulus transmission. Level of education influenced knowledge of the disease and the relationship was statistically significant (P<0.05). Knowledge of the clinical manifestation was however poor. Majority of the respondents (83.0%) perceived the disease to be due to other causes other than Onchocerca volvulus. Knowledge of the side effects of ivermectin treatment was good while knowledge of those excluded from treatment was generally fair. Their attitude to ivermectin distribution was strongly influenced by adverse reactions to the drug, leading either to outright rejection or discontinuation of the treatment after initial acceptance. The most prevalent reactions were swelling of leg/feet (22.2%), followed by itching (17.5%) and weakness (9.8%). The respondents perceived the different clinical manifestation of onchocerciasis to be specific disease entities. Onchocercal nodules were believed to be blood clots; leopard skin was thought to be healed scars of wounds and cuts accidentally acquired in the course of farming while hanging groin was regarded as hernia. In conclusion, ignorance of the cause of the disease negatively influenced their attitude and perception. Therefore, for maximum impact on morbidity and transmission to be achieved with ivermectin treatment, knowledge of the disease and control activities should be imparted to the residents. Such health education should of necessity take into consideration community attitude and culture, which promote health-seeking behaviour.

Key Words: Knowledge, attitudes, perception, onchocerciasis, ivermectin

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 235-241