Effects of rinsing on Staphylococcus aureus load in frozen meats and fish obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria

Ogofure, A. G., and *Igbinosa, E. O.

Applied Microbial Processes & Environmental Health Research Group (AMPEHREG), Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City 300283, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: etinosa.igbinosa@uniben.edu

Abstract:

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous bacterium present in the environment and one of the leading causes of superficial and deep infections. In the food industry, it is acclaimed to be globally responsible for several food-borne diseases. This study was designed to isolate methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and determine the effect of rinsing on MRSA load in frozen meat and fish obtained from open market in Benin City. Continue reading “Effects of rinsing on Staphylococcus aureus load in frozen meats and fish obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria”

Non detection of mecA gene in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pigs

C.N. Nwaogaraku, S.I. Smith, J.A. Badaki

 

Abstract

Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a global health problem causing infections in both humans and livestock, ranging from skin and soft tissue to life threatening blood stream infections. The mecA gene is known to confer resistance to MRSA isolates. This study investigated the carriage of mecA gene by MRSA isolates from pigs.

Methods: One hundred non duplicate staphylococcal isolates recovered from blood samples of pigs in Bariga district of Lagos State at the Molecular Biology and Biotechnology unit of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research were used in the study. S. aureus was identified by cultural characteristics, and positive catalase, coagulase and deoxyribonuclease tests. Phenotypic methicillin resistance was determined by the modified Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and mecA gene was detected by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

Results: Twenty-five S. aureus were identified, of which 11 (44%) were MRSA by phenotypic method. All the isolates were mecA negative on PCR.

Conclusion: The MRSA phenotype observed in the pig isolates in this study appears not to be the classical mecA mediated resistance. There may be alternative mechanisms of resistance in MRSA isolates in pigs.

Keywords: MRSA, phenotypic, mecA gene, PCR, pigs

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Non detection of mecA gene in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pigs

Bacterial contamination of white coats and hands of healthcare workers at mansoura university children’s hospital, Mansoura-Egypt

N. S Gouda, A. M. Sultan, H. Eldegla, W.A Seliem

 

Abstract

Background: Transmission of hospital acquired infections (HAIs) may be associated with contamination of healthcare workers’ (HCWs) hands and white coats.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of HCWs’ white coats in transmitting HAIs and to determine the association between bacterial contamination of HCWs’ hands and white coats.
Methods: A total of 154 HCWs were enrolled in the study; different samples were taken from their hands and white coats. Samples were processed and both microbiological and biochemical characterization of the isolates were done using standard microbiological protocols.
Results: Up to 65.6% of hands and 61% of coats of HCWs were contaminated by microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated organisms from both hands and coats of HCWs (29.2%, 27.3% respectively) followed by MRSA (22.1%, 24.7% respectively).
Conclusions: The risk for contamination of hands and coats of HCWs is high in different clinical settings. In order to reduce the rate of HAIs, a strict dress protocol should be set into play to prevent cross contamination between HCWs and patients.

Keywords: contamination, HCWs, coat, hand, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA.

 

Contamination bacterienne de manteaux blancs et de mains de soins de sante a l’hopital pour enfants de l’universite mansoura, Mansoura-Egypte

Contexte: La transmission des infections

Objectif: Le but de cette étude était de déterminer l’étendue, le type et l’association entre la contamination bactérienne des mains des travailleurs de la santé et les blouses blanches.

Méthodes: Au total, 154 travailleurs de la santé ont été inclus dans l’étude; différents échantillons ont été pris de leurs mains et des manteaux blancs. Les échantillons ont été traités et la caractérisation microbiologique et biochimique des isolats a été effectuée en utilisant des protocoles microbiologiques standard.

Résultats: Jusqu’à 65,6% des mains et 61% des couches de TS ont été contaminées par des micro-organismes. Le Staphylococcus aureusétait le plus souvent isolé des deux mains et des deux sexes (29,2%, 27,3%), suivi par le SARM (22,1%, 24,7% respectivement).

Conclusions: Le risque de contamination des mains et des couches de TS est élevé dans différents contextes cliniques. Afin de réduire le taux d’IASS, un protocole vestimentaire strict devrait être mis en place pour prévenir la contamination croisée entre les travailleurs de la santé et les patients.

Mots clés: contamination, agents de santé, manteau, main, Staphylococcus aureus, SARM

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Bacterial contamination of white coats and hands of healthcare workers at mansoura university children’s hospital, Mansoura-Egypt

Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Malagasy veterinary students

T Rasamiravaka, A.J. Nirinarimanana, A Rasamindrakotroka

 

Abstract

Purpose: Populations that are frequently in contact with animals such as veterinary students have been demonstrated to be at risk of MRSA carriage.Thus, it is relevant to generate baseline data in MRSA nasal carriage and multidrug resistance among Malagasy veterinary students (Madagascar).

Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among veterinary students coming for laboratory training. After their wise consent, nasal swabs of the anterior nares were carried out; and S. aureus was isolated by selective chromogenic culture. They were then assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results: Nasal swabs of 155 Malagasy veterinary students (Sex-ratio M/F: 0.91), enabled to isolate 30 (19, 35%) S. aureus strains, among which 14 (46, 66 %) were méthicillin-resistant (MRSA). Risk factors analysis revealed that history of hospitalization, recent antibiotic intake and frequent contact with animals and livestock workers/veterinarians increase the risk of MRSA nasal carriage. Among MRSA nasal isolates, a high rate of multidrug resistance and particularly an intriguing resistance to gentamycin (20%) and vancomycin (7.14%) were observed.

Conclusion: These results suggest that MRSA is spreading in Malagasy community requiring a strategic policy against multidrug resistant strains.

Keywords: Madagascar, MRSA, Risk factors, Veterinary

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Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Malagasy veterinary students

Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in burns and pressure ulcer patients

TK Udeani, CJ Onyebuchi, MC Ikpenwa, UR Ezenwaka

 

Abstract

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant bacterium that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in patients with burns and bedsore. This was a cross- sectional study that was carried out at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic and source of wounds. Pus from the wound was collected with swab sticks or 2ml syringe and analyzed bacteriologically, using mannitol salt agar sheep red cell blood agar. Isolates of Staphyloccus aureus were subjected to oxacillin and cefoxitin disc-diffusion assay and confirmed by chromogenic Brilliance MRSA 2 Agar; for identification of MRSA and MSSA. The MRSA and MSSA strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and multiple antibiotic index calculated. Of 104 wound swabs analyzed, 52 (50%) were Staphylococcus aureus isolates, while 21 (20.2%) were MRSA and 31 (29.8%) were MSSA. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of MRSA among gender, duration of wounds, wound dressing interval and source of wound. There was an association between age, prolonged hospital admission MRSA infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed high resistance to ampicillin 90.5% followed by erytromycin 81% and ciprofloxacillin 71.4%.All the MRSA isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. All isolates of MRSA were resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and quinolones group of antibiotic used. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of vancomycin showed that the break point was between 0.5-2kg/ml and that of ampicillin was ranges from 4 kg/ml-128 kg/ml. MAR Index was >0.2 which indicates the resistance emanates from hospital. The high prevalence of MRSA and antibiotics resistance may increase the disease burden amongst these patients. It is necessary to establish an antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance system and to improve current infection control programs in the hospitals and community settings, to prevent the spread of MRSA.

Keywords: MRSA, Brillience ChromAgar, ampicillin, vancomycin, multiple antibioticindex

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Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in burns and pressure ulcer patients

High incidence of multidrug-resistant strains of methicill inresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples in Benin-City, Nigeria

O Obasuyi, JO Akerele

 

Abstract

Infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming an increasingly concerning clinical problem. The aim of this study was to assess the development of multidrug resistant strains of MRSA from clinical samples andpossibilities for reducing resistance. This study included a total of seventy-five (75) isolates comprising fifteen (15) each collected from ear, urine, cervix, blood and wounds. An agar disc diffusion test was used to measure the effects of antimicrobial agents against the bacteria isolates following  standardized guidelines. Out of a total of 75 clinical isolates of S. aureuscollected, 43 (57.3%) were resistant to methicillin with isolates obtained from ear infections showing the highest resistance pattern of 14.7% while the least was from urine sample with incidence of 5.3%. From the 43 isolates that showed resistance to methicillin, 36 (83.7%) were multidrug resistant to various classes of antibiotics tested.MRSA showed an increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance and therefore calls for periodic surveillance of nosocomial infections due to S. aureus and other important bacterial pathogens.

Key Words: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus, MRSA, multidrug resistance, MDR

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High incidence of multidrug-resistant strains of methicill inresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples in Benin-City, Nigeria

Molecular Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Benin-City Nigeria

O Obasuyi

 

Abstract

We use the molecular techniques of PCR and PFGE to identify MRSA from clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus causing infections among hospitalized patients in Benin-City, Nigeria. A total of 36 isolates were obtained from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between July-September, 2007. The MRSA strains were selected according to their phenotypic characteristics (antibiotic resistant profiles), susceptibility to oxacillin by E-test, and detection of β-lactamase. This was verified by a latex agglutination test for PBP2a production combined with PCR for mecA gene carriage. Four isolates representing 11% were confirmed as MRSA according to the molecular techniques used with two PFGE types (H and L) and one agr type (1). Multi resistance to the various antibiotics used was observed in one of the clones. The isolation of MRSA in health institution indicates that adequate steps in limiting spread are urgently needed. Also, for the first time two MRSA clones according to the PFGE classifications have been identified in Nigeria.

Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, PFGE, PCR, molecular techniques.

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Molecular Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Benin-City Nigeria

Global trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus and emerging challenges for control

O Azeez-Akande

 

Abstract

Background: Following its first recognition in early 1960s, the increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has become a global problem. The emergence of multiple-drug resistant MRSA strains and dissemination of epidemic antibiotic clones including presence of wide spectrum of virulence and predisposing risk factors complicate diagnosis, chemotherapy and control causing significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of MRSA strains in domestic animals and protozoan has widened the epidemiologic characters of the organism and may influence infection control policies. Objectives: To review the emergence and epidemiologic spread of resistant strains of MRSA, molecular/genetic basis of resistance in the organism and challenges facing control strategies worldwide. It also aims to suggest intervention strategies so as to checkmate the spread of MRSA infections.
Methods: By reviewing local and international literatures on MRSA infections coupled with practical experience in the field of this endeavour. Result/Conclusion: MRSA has shown increasing endemic and epidemic spread in the last four decades causing serious medical and socio-economic difficulties. Routine and regular surveillance (uncommon in poor-resourced developing areas of especially sub-Saharan Africa), good hospital practices and personal hygiene, public enlightenment, development of effective therapeutic agents and rational administration of antibiotics based on reliable test results will limit the spread of MRSA infections.

Key words: MRSA, incidence, morbidity, mortality, surveillance, control.

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Global trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus and emerging challenges for control

Characteristics of Nosocomial MRSA in Assir Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

T Al-Azraqi, CSS Bello

 

Abstract

The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of nosocomial methicillin-resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA & MSSA) and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to vancomycin and oxacillin. Over a six-month period a study of Staphylococcus aureusisolates from clinical specimens of patients with nosocomial infections in Assir Central Hospital (ACH), Abha, Saudi Arabia, between September 2003 and February 2004, was carried out. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus was performed using standard microbiological methods. MIC to vancomycin and oxacillin was carried out using the E-test strips. Eighty-five Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified. These were made up of 39 (45.9%) MRSA and 46 (54.1%) MSSA. The MIC to oxacillin showed that 37/39 (94.9%) MRSA had MIC >256 µg/ml and only 2/39 (5.1%) had MIC of 4 and 32 µg/ml. Thirty of forty six (65.2%) of the MSSA had MIC < 0.50 µg/ml and 16/46 (34.8%) had MIC of between 0.50 -2 µg/ml. All the 85 isolates were fully sensitive to vancomycin (MIC breakpoint < 4 µg/ml). There is even distribution of sensitivity pattern to vancomycin among MRSA and MSSA isolates. 31/39 (79.5%) of MRSA had MIC of 2 µg/ml while 34/46(74.0%) of MSSA had MIC of 2 µg/ml. The prevalence of MRSA in nosocomial infections in ACH is 45.9%. Thirty-seven out of thirty-nine (94.9%) of the MRSA strains show high resistance to oxacillin (MIC > 256 µg/ml). The use of oxacillin-related drugs to treat nosocomial Staphylococcal infections in ACH should be reviewed and infection control practices should be intensified so as to stem any future increase in MRSA prevalence in the hospital.
Key words: MRSA, Characteristics, MICs, Vancomycin, Oxacillin.Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 163-166

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