Antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary bacterial isolates of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of selected hospitals in Ilorin, Nigeria

*1Baba, R. T., 1Adedayo, M. R., 1Awe, S., and 2Bale, M. I.

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University,  Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: omotayo.rasheedat@gmail.com; 07065391534: 09026144501

                         

Abstract:

 Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity for both mother and baby. This study was aimed at determining the urinary bacterial isolates and their susceptibility to selected antibiotics among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of selected Hospitals in Ilorin, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 300 pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 44 years were selected by random sampling technique from antenatal clinics of three randomly selected healthcare facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria; Civil Service Hospital, Sobi Specialist Hospital and Okelele Primary Health Center, between July and October 2021.  Clean-catch mid-stream specimens of voided urine were collected from each participant, cultured on CysteineLactose-Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) and Blood agar plates, and incubated aerobically at 37oC for 24 hours. The presence of significant bacteriuria (≥105 CFU/ml) was determined on the culture plate using the plate count method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to selected antibiotics was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. Cefoxitin (30𝜇g) was used as surrogate to determine phenotypic methicillin resistance in staphylococcus isolates, and the methicillin resistance (mecA) gene was detected by conventional PCR assay. Continue reading “Antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary bacterial isolates of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of selected hospitals in Ilorin, Nigeria”

Impact of malaria on inflammatory proteins, haematological and biochemical indices in pregnancy

A.K. Digban, T.O Digban, A.O. Adelabu, M. V. Ndukwea

 

Abstract

Malaria morbidity and mortality has remained a major health burden in the developing countries especially in tropical Africa. Thus malaria association in pregnancy and its associated complication remains a major health problem to the expectant mothers. In this study a total of five hundred and fifty (550) blood specimens were obtained from both pregnant and non-pregnant mothers with and without malaria parasitaemiawho consented to the study. Selected biochemical and haematological parameters were assessed using conventional methods. The result showed that the malaria parasite species isolated was plasmodium falcipariumwhich accounted for about 80% of the total population; the age group of 26-35years had the highest malaria density for those classified as low (53.7%), average (55.7%) and high (70.4%). This accounted for 60.7% of the total malaria parasite density. Further analysis of the malaria parasite density on pregnancy according to their trimester showed that women on their second trimester of pregnancy had the highest percentage of malaria parasite density of 55.7% and this was statistically significant (P>0.05). The result also show that pregnancy with malaria parasitaemia had the highest mean ± standard deviation of 20.37± 15.55 while those grouped as having ‘malaria parasitaemia without pregnancy’ had the lowest (6.09± 3.76) level of C- reactive protein (CRP). This was also statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusively, the findings recorded in this study have now shown that malaria parasite infections during pregnancy have a significant impact on both the biochemical and haematological indices and the prevalent species of the parasite is plasmodium faciparium.

Keywordsplasmodium faciparium, pregnancy, malaria parasitaemia, morbidity, mortality.

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Impact of malaria on inflammatory proteins, haematological and biochemical indices in pregnancy

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria

EO Nwankwo, AM Lawal, M Abba

 

Abstract

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was  to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in  Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria.

Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from one hundred and thirty consenting pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Grimad hospital and eighty non-pregnant women from the out-patient clinic were screened for the presence of HCV antibodies. This was done by Skytech diagnostic  laboratory rapid strip (USA) and confirmed by ELISA method.

Results: Out of 130 pregnant women 9(6.9%) were confirmed to be positive to HCV antibodies. Also out of 80 non-pregnant women of the same age group, used as control, 4(5.0%) were positive.

Conclusion: A prevalence rate of 6.9% calls for urgent attention by policy makers and healthcare providers to begin massive enlightenment of this problem. All pregnant women should be screened for early detection.

Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Pregnancy, Screening, Transmission.

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Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria

Rubella IgG Antibody among Nigerian Pregnant Women without Vaccination History

MO Adewumi, RB Olusanya, BA Oladunjoye, JA Adeniji

 

Abstract

Rubella is a vaccine-preventable viral infection, its aetiologic agent; rubella virus was identified as human teratogen capable of causing a spectrum of birth defects described as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, significant proportion of the population remains susceptible to rubella infection in developing countries. More significantly, such developing countries including Nigeria have not demonstrated adequate commitment to preventive vaccination; a panacea for intervention. Consequently, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of anti-rubella IgG among pregnant women to ascertain the proportion of susceptible population. A total of 273 consenting rubella vaccine naïve antenatal clinic attendees aged 15-42 years (Median age = 28 years) were randomly selected and their sera analyzed for qualitative and quantitative anti-rubella IgG detection. Overall, 244/273 (89.4%) pregnant women enrolled in this study had protective level (Titre = >10 IU/mL) of anti-rubella IgG (Median Titre = 165 IU/mL; Range = <10 – >250 IU/mL), while, 29/273 (10.6%) of the study population lack protective antibody titre ( OD = <10 IU/mL). Results confirm previous reports of exposure, infection, and continuous circulation of rubella virus in Nigeria. It emphasizes the need for improved  and continuous surveillance for rubella and CRS cases, prompt vaccination of vulnerable populations, and evaluation of health policies to achieve immunization and ultimately ensure control/elimination of rubella virus in Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: Rubella, Pregnancy, Antibody, Congenital Rubella Syndrome, Nigeria

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Rubella IgG Antibody among Nigerian Pregnant Women without Vaccination History

Reference Values of CD4-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Seronegative Pregnant Women in Buea, Cameroon

RA Tanjong, J Atashili, HLF Kamga, G Ikomey, NT Akenji, MP Ndumbe

 

Abstract

Pregnancy is a physiologically immunocompromised state, during which alterations in T-lymphocyte subsets may occur. Reference values for CD4 counts in pregnancy have not been established particularly in sub-Saharan populations. This study aimed at describing expected (‘normal’) values of CD4 counts in healthy HIV-negative pregnant women so these could serve as reference for assessing the progress of HIV disease in HIV-infected pregnant women. The study was conducted in antenatal clinics in the Buea Health District, Cameroon. All eligible women were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Whole blood samples collected were tested for HIV using Determine 1/2 and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 rapid tests. The CD4+ absolute counts were assessed using the Partec Cyflow Counter and the CD4 easy count kit. A total of 279 women were analysed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 47 years. A vast majority (95%) of participants were in the second or third trimester of gestation. Slightly less than half (43%) were primiparous. The CD4 cell count ranged from 321 to 1808 cells/μl . This distribution was approximately normal with a mean of 851cells/μl, a median of 831cells/μl , and a standard deviation of 254cells/μl . The expected (‘normal’) range, covering 95% of the sample was 438-1532 cells/μl. Participants with malaria parasitaemia tended to have a lower CD4 count (lower on average by 115 cells/μl, P<0.001). CD4 cell counts in HIV-negative pregnant women appear similar to those of the general population of HIV-negatives. These values can thus be used as references when assessing HIV-seropositive pregnant women.

Keywords: CD4 counts, HIV-negative, pregnancy

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Reference Values of CD4-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Seronegative Pregnant Women in Buea, Cameroon

 

 

Toxoplasma antibodies amongst HIV/AIDS patients attending the University Teaching Hospital Yaounde in Cameroon

JCN Assob, AL Njunda, DS Nsagha, HL Kamga, PE Weledji, VB Che

 

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligatory intracellular protozoon. It causes a wide range of diseases with toxoplasma encephalitis commonly encountered in HIV/AIDS patients. This work was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasma antibodies (IgM and IgG) in HIV/AIDS patients attending the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Cameroon. Sera were collected from 133 HIV/AIDS patients at the out-patient department and the ELISA technique was employed serologically to determine toxoplasma antibodies. Of the 133 patients 83 (62.4%) were females and 59 (37.6%) were males; ninety three (69.9%) were positive for toxoplasma antibodies. Fourteen (10.8%) of the 93 of seropositive patients presented with both IgG and IgM-antibodies in their sera while fifty six (42.1%) and 8 (6.0%) were only sero-positive for toxoplasma IgG or IgM-antibody respectively This rate of infection was not dependent on the patient’s sex or age (X2=11.49, P>0.05). The data provides enough evidence to conclude that 64.7% of the positive cases were due to reactivated infection.

Key words: Toxoplasmosis, HIV/AIDS, Pregnancy, Risk factors, Prevalence, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Toxoplasma antibodies amongst HIVAIDS patients attending the University Teaching Hospital Yaounde in Cameroon

Plasmodium falciparium parasitemia in pregnancy in relation to maternal anaemia

R.A Akinboro, O Ojurongbe, A.A Akindele, O.A Adefioye, O.S Bolaji, O Olaniran, O.A Adeyeba

 

Abstract

This study was aimed at examining existing relationship between peripheral parasitaemia of Plasmodium falciparum and anemia among pregnant women in a secondary hospital and a tertiary hospital in Osogbo, South-Western, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty five (225) patients were enrolled into this study, one hundred and fifty (150) from Asubiaro General Hospital, Osogbo and seventy five (75) from LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. A total of 30 (13.3%) women carrying the first pregnancy (primigravida), and 195 (86.6%) multiparous women (2-5) were enrolled. Mean age of recruited women was 31.511± SD 1.03, mean gestational age was 2.4267 ± SD 0.72 and mean packed cell volume was also 26.889 ± SD 0.43. Overall prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 63.6% while mean malaria parasite density was 461.33 among women infected with malaria parasite. Prevalence of malaria in pregnancy was highest amongst women with first pregnancy and in the age bracket 26 – 30 years (26.7%) and least among women greater than 40 years. Parasitemia decreased as parity increased, as women acquire immunity to malaria progressively with multiple pregnancies. Mild to moderate anaemia was also found to be prevalent among primigravida (11.6%) and this was associated with malaria parasitemia among these women .No correlated relationship was established between malaria parasitemia and age, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy, and Packed cell volume. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and other methods of malaria control should be sustained and advocacy for inclusion of malaria treatment in safe motherhood should be continued because of its beneficial potentials.

Key words: Malaria, Pregnancy, anaemia.

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Plasmodium falciparium parasitemia in pregnancy in relation to maternal anaemia

 

Candida Species Amongst Pregnant Women In Benin City, Nigeria: Effect Of Predisposing Factors

FE Oviasogie, FI Okungbowa

 

Abstract

Genital samples from pregnant women were examined to determine the Candida species present and how some predisposing factors would affect the frequency of isolation of species. A total of 147 women (87 volunteer asymptomatic pregnant women and 60 asymptomatic nonpregnant women) were examined. High Vaginal Swabs (HVS) were collected in pairs while demographic data (age of individual, age of pregnancy, occupation and use of contraceptive pill) on each subject were obtained alongside. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates and incubated for 72 hours at 37°C. Results revealed five Candida species (C.albicans, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis, C.stellatoidea, C.parapsilosis) with 61.5, 17.9, 7.7, 5.1, 2.6 % frequency of isolation respectively, as against 73.7, 7.7, 1.4, 11.3, and 0.0% for control. Women in the second trimester of pregnancy had the highest occurrence (68.8%) while the age groups 24- 30 and 31-37 years had the highest occurrence in the control (46.2%) and in the pregnant ones (51.7%) respectively. Traders had 68.8%, and full-time housewives, 26.7% occurrence. More women who used contraceptives had Candida (58.3%) as against non contraceptive users (35.3%). The results support literature reports that there are high rates of colonization of the vagina of pregnant women by Candida. They also give credence to earlier reports that the factors determined here affect the frequency of isolation of Candida species from the vagina.

KeywordsCandida, pregnancy, women, genital specimens, Benin City

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 10 (2) 2009: pp. 92-98

Prevalence Of Malaria Parasitaemia In Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic At Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

EI Ikeh, SN Akudo, VE Uguru

 

Abstract

The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in 200 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) between April and June 2003 was determined. Geimsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined microscopically for malaria parasites; the parasite densities were determined on the thick films. Eighteen (9%) of the women were positive for malaria parasites and only Plasmodium falciparum was encountered in the study. Pregnant women in the 15-20 year age group recorded the highest prevalence of 16%, closely followed by the age group 21-25 years with 15.2%. The 26-30, 31-35, 36-40 and 41-50 year age groups recorded 6.7%, 4.5%, 4.1% and 0% prevalence rates respectively. Women in their first trimester recorded 13.3% as against 10.2% and 3.8% for the second and third trimester respectively. The primigravidae had a prevalence of 12.9% as against 7.2% for multigravidae. Most of the women with malaria parasitaemia (89%) had parasite densities of less than 1000/µL of blood. The low prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in the ANC women is attributed to the regular prophylactic malaria therapy and the impacts of the health talks normally given to pregnant women during routine antenatal visits
Key words: Malaria, pregnancy, prevalence, prophylaxisAfr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 91-94

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