Prevalence of symptomatic significant bacteriuria and associated risk factors among patients attending major hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria

*[1]Bassey, E. E., 1Mbah, M., 1Akpan, S. S., [2]Ikpi, E. E., and 1Alaribe, A. A. A.

1Department of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Urology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: emmanueleffiong2046@gmail.com; ORCiD: //orcid.org/0000-0003-2029-5611

 

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most encountered bacterial infections of humans and affect both male and female of all age groups, resulting in high mortality, without proper management. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, aetiological agents, and factors associated with symptomatic significant bacteriuria/UTI among patients attending selected hospitals in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of 240 patients with suspected UTI, from whom mid-stream voided urine samples were collected for culture on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar. Uropathogens growth on the culture media were characterized using conventional microbiological and biochemical tests, and confirmed with API® 20E and 20NE (BioMérieux) identification system. Data on socio-demographic, clinical symptoms and potential risk factors were obtained using structured questionnaire. Pearson Chi-square was employed to determine association between categorical variables with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Prevalence of symptomatic significant bacteriuria and associated risk factors among patients attending major hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria”

Prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in HIV-infected patients in Ilorin, Nigeria

*1Bale, M. I., 1Sinumvayo, J. P., 2Badmus, R. A., 3Babatunde, S. K., 4Aroyehun, A. B., and 1Adeyemo, R. O.

  1Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences,  University of Rwanda, Republic of Rwanda

2Department of Microbiology Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University,  Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Kola Daisi University, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, King’s College, Aberdeen, AB24 3FX, Scotland

*Correspondence to: muribaale@gmail.com; i.muritala@ur.ac.rw

Abstract:

 Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common type of infections worldwide, and this is usually preceded by asymptomatic significant bacteriuria (ASB). The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria responsible for UTI makes this entity of public challenge, which has been fueled by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study determined the prevalence of ASB and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from urine samples of selected HIV-infected patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. Continue reading “Prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in HIV-infected patients in Ilorin, Nigeria”

Prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from critically ill patients in two healthcare facilities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

[1]Ogbonna, O., *1Onuoha, S. C., [2]David, I. E., [3]Onwa, C. N., 4Eromonsele, B. O., and 3Ogbu, O.

1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Department of Home Economics and Hospitality, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria         

3Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

4Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Evangel University, Akaeze, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: sconuoha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:

 Background: The intrinsic property of Acinetobacter baumannii to survive in harsh conditions on environmental surfaces and its ability to resist commonly used antibiotics in hospitals make this pathogen to be one of the most prevalent causes of hospital infections. The present study was aimed at determining the prevalence of A. baumannii among critically ill patients in two tertiary hospitals; Alex Ekwueme-Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (AE-FUTHA) and Mater Misericodiae Hospital Afikpo (MMHA) in Ebonyi State, southeast Nigeria. Continue reading “Prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from critically ill patients in two healthcare facilities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria”

Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility pattern of oral candidiasis among HIV-infected patients in a Mission Hospital, southeast Nigeria

*1Ekwealor, C. C., 2Nweke, C. J., 1Anaukwu, C. G., 1Anakwenze, V. N., 1Ogbukagu, C. M., and 3Mba, A. N.

1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

2Department of Basic Clinical Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

3David Umahi Federal University of Health Sciences, Uburu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: c.ekwealor@unizik.edu.ng; +234(0)8035080790; ORCID: 0000-0002-7171-2174

Abstract:  

Background: Oral candidiasis is an infection that follows colonization of oral cavity by Candida species mostly Candida albicans. About 90% of HIV-infected persons develop this disease during the course of HIV infection and could serve as early sign of HIV-related immunodeficiency. Treatment involves the use of antifungal drugs. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis and the susceptibility of isolated Candida species to available antifungal agents among selected HIV-infected patients in a mission hospital, southeast Nigeria.  Continue reading “Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility pattern of oral candidiasis among HIV-infected patients in a Mission Hospital, southeast Nigeria”

Prevalence of COVID-19 at the Wahgnion-Gold mining site in Burkina Faso and use of RT-PCR initial cycle threshold to monitor the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 load

+1Cissé, A., +*1,2Lingani, M., 1Tao, M., 1Nana, S., 1Kaboré, B., 3Eric D. A. S., 4Nassouri, A., 1Diagbouga, S., 5Bamba, S., and 1Tarnagda, Z.

1National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Unité des Maladies à Potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Émergentes et

Zoonoses, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Burkina Faso

2Unité de Recherche Clinique de Nanoro, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Nanoro, Burkina Faso

3Teranga Gold Corporation, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

4Wahgnion Gold Operation, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

5Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Santé, Université Nazi BONI, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

*Correspondence to: lingani10@yahoo.fr; +joint first authors

 

Abstract:

 Background: To control the spread of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is necessary to adequately identify and isolate infectious patients particularly at the work place. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is the recommended confirmatory method for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SARSCoV-2 infection in Burkina Faso and to use the initial cycle threshold (Ct) values of RT-PCR as a tool to monitor the dynamics of the viral load.

Methodology: Between September 2021 and February 2022, oropharyngeal and/or nasopharyngeal swab samples of consecutively selected COVID-19 symptomatic and apparently healthy workers from the Wahgnion mining site in the South-western Burkina Faso who consented to the study were collected according to the two weeks shift program and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR assay. Patients positive for the virus were followed-up weekly until tests were negative. Association of the initial RT-PCR Ct values with disease duration was assessed by adjusted linear regression approach. Two-sided p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Prevalence of COVID-19 at the Wahgnion-Gold mining site in Burkina Faso and use of RT-PCR initial cycle threshold to monitor the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 load”

Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria

[1]Okoeguale, J., *[2]Samuel, S. O., [3]Amadi, S. C., 1Njoku, A., and 1Okome, G. B. O.

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: samuelolowo2003@gmail.com

Abstract:

Background: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses and most women in the world are probably infected with at least one type of the virus during their sexual life. Oncogenic HPVs are predominantly sexually-transmitted pathogens and several high-risk types are associated with nearly all cases of cervical cancer worldwide. In view of paucity of data on the prevalence and distribution of various high risk HPV subtypes, this study was carried out to provide evidence based local data for cervical cancer preventive programs within this region.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 145 consenting women living in Ugbegun rural community of Edo central senatorial district, Edo State, Nigeria. Informed consent of each participant was obtained and socio-demographic information collected through interviewer-administered collection tool. Cervical swab sample was collected using the female cervical cell collection kit for HPV DNA testing. HPV DNA was detected by the Hybribio 21 HPV Geno array test kit which uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and flow through hybridization assay. Summary statistics were presented as mean, standard deviation, median, frequency and proportions as appropriate using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Association of sociodemographic characteristics of the women with HPV prevalence was done using the ‘t’ test, with p value less than 0.5 considered statistical significance. Continue reading “Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria”

Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamaseproducing Gram-negative bacterial infections in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital, southwest Nigeria

*1Adeyemo, A. T., 2Adeyemo, A. T., 3Odetoyin, B. W., and 2,3Onipede, A. O.
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Uniosun Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals
Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: adeyemoat@gmail.com; +2347031287078

Abstract:
Background: Clinical infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria constitute great burden to healthcare delivery with these resistant pathogens contributing largely to the magnitude and spread of antimicrobial resistance globally. Hence, knowledge of the risk factors for acquisition of infection caused by ESBL-producing bacteria is crucial to instituting prompt and appropriate treatment as well as prevention and control measures. This study investigated the risk factors associated with the prevalence of ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections among hospitalized patients in Uniosun Teaching Hospital (UTH), Osogbo, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 359 hospitalized patients with clinical infections from whose clinical samples we isolated non-duplicate GNB were consecutively recruited. GNB were isolated following aerobic cultures of
appropriate clinical samples and MicrobactTMGNB 24E kit was used for species identification. All isolates were screened for ESBL production by the combination disc method. Relevant clinical and demographic information
was obtained using a designed data collection form, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated risk factors. Continue reading “Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamaseproducing Gram-negative bacterial infections in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital, southwest Nigeria”

Malaria rapid diagnostic test positivity rate among febrile patients seen at the Paediatric emergency unit of a tertiary care facility

*1Obu, D. C., 1Asiegbu, U. V., 1Okereke, B. E., 1Ukoh, U. C., 2Ujunwa, F. A., 1Afefi, C. O., 1Enya, V. E., 1Item, S., and 3Efunshile, A. M.

1Department of Paediatrics, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

2Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical Microbiology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: obudora@yahoo.com; +2348037511272

Abstract:
Background: Malaria, a life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted to humans by the female Anopheles mosquito is one of the infectious causes of fever in children. In Nigeria, malaria remains one of the most important health problems, accounting for 25% of infants and 30% of under-five mortalities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria among febrile children presenting at the children’s emergency room (CHER) of a tertiary health facility in Abakaliki using a malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT). Continue reading “Malaria rapid diagnostic test positivity rate among febrile patients seen at the Paediatric emergency unit of a tertiary care facility”

Intestinal schistosomiasis in an apparently healthy rural population in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

* 1Odoya, E. M., 2Edosomwa, E. U., 1Iribhogbe, O. I.,2Damina, A. A., and 3Asojo, O. A.  

 1Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2University of Benin, Nigeria

3National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA                                  

*Correspondence to: ebubeodoya@yahoo.co.nz

Abstract:

 Background: Schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria and three species; Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma intercalatum have been reported in Niger Delta, Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis in rural communities of Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Four rural homogeneous communities; Otuegala, Immiringi, Otuesega, and Ibelebiri in Ogbia Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, were randomly selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to each participant in their native language and used to collect participant’s biodata and swimming history. Stool samples collected from all participants were examined qualitatively by wet preparation and after formolethol concentration. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software and results presented in proportion and tables. Continue reading “Intestinal schistosomiasis in an apparently healthy rural population in Bayelsa State, Nigeria”

Gastrointestinal parasites among swine bred in Edo State, Nigeria

*Omoruyi, Z., and Agbinone, I
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences,
University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: zainab.omoruyi@uniben.edu

Abstract:

Background: Swine production in Nigeria is encountering several constraints among which are diseases. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of swine with respect to sex, age, location and hygiene practices in the breeding sites in three piggery farms; University of Benin Animal Farm; Osasio Farm Uselu in Egor Local Government Area (LGA), and Ojemai Farm Ekehuanwa Road, Oredo LGA, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 150 pigs were sampled from the 3 piggery farms. Faecal sample (10g each) was aseptically collected from the rectum of each selected pig and processed by concentration method to microscopically identify parasites in both saline and iodine preparations. A designed pre-tested structured questionnaire was interviewer-administered to each piggery owner to collect information on husbandry practices, animal health care issues and potential risk factors associated with parasitosis. Data was analysed using SPPSS version 20 software, while odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated on each potential risk factors.

Results: Of the 150 pigs examined, 130 (86.6%) were infected with five gastrointestinal parasitic agents. Strongyloides ransomi 81 (54%) was the most frequently identified parasite, followed by Ascaris suum 68 (45.3%), Giardia lamblia 31 (20.6%), Entamoeba polecki 10 (6.6%) and Trichuris suis 10 (6.6%). Single and mixed infections were not significantly associated with the observed prevalence (p>0.05). Similarly, the sex of pig was not significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites (p=0.8824). The prevalence of parasitosis among the grower (87.8%) was not significantly different from the adult swine (87.5%) (p>0.05). Osasio had the highest infection rate (90.0%) but this rate was not significantly different from the two other farms (p>0.05).

Conclusion: This study confirms high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in pigs bred in Edo State, Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that farmers improve on their biosecurity and adhere to routine de-worming regimen of pigs.

Keywords: age, gender, prevalence, gastrointestinal, parasite, swine Continue reading “Gastrointestinal parasites among swine bred in Edo State, Nigeria”