A review of COVID-19 vaccines strategies and anti-vaxxers theories

*1Adesokan, A., and 2Obeid, M. A.

1PreciseMed, Glasgow, United Kingdom                                 

2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University Irbid, Jordan

*Correspondence to: Ade@precisemed.co.uk; dapoadesokan@gmail.com


In what is a global record time of getting the COVID-19 vaccines available within 11 months, the world has equally been faced with several myths and conspiracy theories dissuading the public from accepting vaccination as an important measure in the response to the pandemic. We reviewed the leading conspiracy theories and balanced these with the scientific basis of viral transmission and replication and the broad role of vaccination in tackling this challenge. We briefly examined the design of the leading vaccines, and provided recommendations for worldwide COVID-19 distribution, acceptance and use. Continue reading “A review of COVID-19 vaccines strategies and anti-vaxxers theories”

Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity

Joseph, A. A., and *Fagbami, A. H.
Department of Microbial Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences,
University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: hfagbami@gmail.com

Human coronaviruses, which hitherto were causative agents of mild respiratory diseases of man, have recently become one of the most important groups of pathogens of humans the world over. In less than two decades, three members of the group, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-COV-2, have emerged causing disease outbreaks that affected millions and claimed the lives of thousands of people. In 2017, another coronavirus, the swine acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS) coronavirus (SADS-CoV) emerged in animals killing over 24,000 piglets in China. Because of the medical and veterinary importance of coronaviruses, we carried out a review of available literature and summarized the current information on their properties and diversity. Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses with some unique characteristics such as the possession of a very large nucleic acid, high infidelity of the RNA-dependent polymerase, and high rate of mutation and recombination in the genome. They are susceptible to a number of physical agents and several chemical agents used for disinfection procedures in hospitals and laboratories. They exhibit considerable genetic and host diversity, causing diseases of gastrointestinal and respiratory system in a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. The high prevalence of coronaviruses in domestic and wild animals, especially bats and birds, and the propensity for their genomes to undergo mutation and recombination may lead to emergence of new coronaviruses that could pose a serious threat to human and animal health.

Keywords: coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-Cov-2, properties, diversity, review Continue reading “Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity”

Cytomegalovirus in Immunosuppressed Patients: A Silent and Potential Killer.

A Fowotade, VU Nwadike



Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised individuals. This review will concentrate on understanding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnostic options for CMV infection.

Keywords: Review, Cytomegalovirus, Immunosuppressed

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Cytomegalovirus in Immunosuppressed Patients A Silent and Potential Killer

Review Article: Recent Advances in Childhood Antimalaria Chemotherapy

SK Ernest, OA Mokuolu



As malaria continues to kill many people in our world and spreading into areas that were never known to have it before, it becomes necessary to make occasional reviews of what therapeutic measures are effective in areas of malaria endemicity. There is a global concern as to reducing malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide. Malaria eradication had been viewed as impossible with the mechanisms used against it and the world has settled for just a control. One of the critical areas of this control is effective case management. As it was the case with tuberculosis, leprosy and bacterial infections, there is a paradigm shift from the monotherapy that have been used for nearly three centuries (Quinine) and nearly 60 years after other drugs were discovered (Chloroquine, since early 1940s and subsequently others) with no remarkable drop in the global morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) now advocates combination therapy, which are mainly Artemisinin–based. We in this article made an extensive review of the combination chemotherapeutic possibilities and advocacy for it to achieve increase survival, reduced disease burden through effective parasitaemic clearance with reduced chance of early recrudescence. A necessary overview has been made of the life cycle and clinical presentation of malaria which has not changed significantly over the years. Also, the combination chemotherapy including Artemisinin-based, Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine–based and the non-Artemisinin non-Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine-based chemotherapy have all been reviewed and concluded that their use will lead to effective case management and reduced mortality. We therefore advocate for a therapeutic paradigm shift to these combination therapy.
Key words: Combination chemotherapy, antimalaria, childhood, review

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 129-137

Review Article: Vaccine for Malaria – How Far?

GO Oyeyinka



This is a review of the progress made so far in the effort to produce a malaria vaccine. The problems that have made it impossible to get an effective vaccine for malaria are discussed. Also examined are the current efforts to produce the vaccine and the prospects for an effective vaccine in the future.
Key words: Vaccine, malaria, review.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 139-143

Review Article: Prospect and Progress of Malaria Vaccine Development

OA Adeyeba, AF Fagbenro-Beyioku, O Ojurongbe



Malaria kills one child every 30 seconds in Africa. The development of a safe vaccine remains an urgent unmet need which could greatly control and even lead to the eradication of the disease. The success recorded in the recent vaccine trials have given some ray of hope that a safe and effective vaccine against malaria will soon be produced. In this article, we bring together important published information on the status of malaria vaccine development and reviewed some field trials and the obstacles as well as prospect for effective malaria vaccination.
Key words: Malaria vaccine, prospect, review

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 145-152

The role of clinical pathologists in the management of male infertility

EK Oghagbon, SS Taiwo, MO Buhari, DP Oparinde



Male infertility is receiving increasing attention in Africa as up to 50% of cases of infertility are ascribed to it. In the management of this condition, the clinical laboratory plays a crucial role especially in the proper identification of causes of infertility. The role of the pathologists in this respect stems from the choice of laboratory equipment, reagents, type of samples needed, proper sample collection and its preparation. Added to these functions, the pathologist should help in the proper selection of required tests so as to ensure optimum diagnosis and treatment efficiency. Semen analysis is the first test required in the laboratory assessment of the infertile male. The obtained spermogram serves as the pivot for further tests which include hormonal assays, tissue studies and karyotyping. There is a disturbing high prevalence of azoospermia among Nigerians. The expected laboratory evaluation and treatment of such patients and others with abnormal spermogram are discussed in this review.

Key Words: Male infertility, review.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 69-76


MO Adelekan, SS Taiwo, BA Onile



Psoas abscess is an uncommon clinical entity that can be primary, following haematogenous dissemination of an aetiologic agent, the source of which is usually occult, or secondary, as a result of local extension of an infectious process near the psoas muscle. The triad of presentation; fever, loin pain and limitation of hip movement, may not be found in all patients. The correct diagnosis can be made with a vigilant clinical examination, epidemiological, microbiological and radiological investigations. The main stay of treatment is medical and or surgical drainage of abscess and treatment of the underlying illness. With the resurgence of tuberculosis, consequent upon the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been an increase in the number of psoas abscess due to mycobacterial organisms. This is a review of the literature on psoas abscess with highlights on the mode of presentation, diagnosis and treatment modalities.

Key Words: psoas, abscess, review

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 55-63

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