Pathologic changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a review

*1Babazhitsu, M., 2Adegoke, O. O., 3Abayomi, S. A., and 4Adegboro, B.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria 4Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234 8032874925

Abstract:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters cells using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which are expressed by the respiratory tract endothelium, epithelial cells of the stomach, duodenum, ileum, rectum, cholangiocytes, and hepatocytes. Pathological examinations of these organs are not feasible method of diagnosis but can explain pathological changes, pathogenesis of the disease, and the cause of death in COVID-19 cases. In this review, we performed a literature search for COVID-19-related pathological changes seen during post-mortem examinations in different organs of the body including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, skin, heart and blood. Our findings showed that SARS-CoV-2 has damaging effects on many organs, probably due to the host immune responses to the presence of the virus. It is recommended that both antiviral and immunomodulatory agents should be considered in the management of COVID-19 patients for better prognosis, and clinical outcome. Continue reading “Pathologic changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a review”

A review of the possible prognostic values of biochemical changes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections

*1Adegboro, B., 2Babazhitsu, M., and 3Mba, N. I.

Departments of 1Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and 3Chemical Pathology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
Because of high mortality and long-term hospital stay among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections, it is important to search for biochemical changes in different organs and systems that could be useful in diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19. We conducted a literature search of online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar for relevant materials on biochemical changes in SARS-COV-2 infections published between December 2019 and March 2021. The review shows that SARS-COV-2 uses the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for attachment and entry into host cells. These ACE2 are abundantly expressed by the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and moderately expressed by the epithelial cells of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, rectum, cholangiocytes, liver hepatocytes, pancreatic beta cells, and kidney tubular cells. This explains the systemic nature of SARS-COV-2 infection, and the high morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. Although, tests to assess biochemical changes are not specific enough for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, they may be useful for predicting outcome of COVID-19. This review highlights biochemical parameters that are significantly elevated or reduced in SARS-COV-2 infections, and which can be used as predictive factors of the severity and prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Continue reading “A review of the possible prognostic values of biochemical changes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections”

Africa’s COVID-19 story: cheap innovation technology and climate protective effect to her rescue?

*Adesokan, A., and MacLean, M.

PreciseMed 272 Bath Street, Glasgow, G2 4JR Scotland

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
As the COVID-19 pandemic sweeps the globe, causing tens of thousands of deaths in most Western countries with economies round the world in turmoil, Africa has so far been largely spared the kind of impact that has thrown the United States, South America and Europe into crisis. Most African countries remain seriously unprepared to handle the pandemic of the nature the Western world is dealing with; Africa, from Mali to Ethiopia to Libya and down to South Africa, have insufficient ventilators or intensive care beds to cope with COVID-19 should it strike with ferocity as it is doing in the Western world. As COVID-19 reaches the shores of Africa, despite poor health facilities, poor living conditions and inadequate availability of clean water across the continent, Africans are still putting up a fight taking COVID-19 head on with use of cheap technology, and help from the continent’s protective climate. However, Africa cannot afford to be complacent. African countries must continue to adopt strict social distancing measures, educate their people on the importance of intake of regular vitamin D, good exercising habit, good sleep pattern, adequate hand hygiene measures, as well as strictly enforcing the “test, trace and isolate“ model to the letter for the continent to take on the fight head on and wage a proper war against COVID-19. Continue reading “Africa’s COVID-19 story: cheap innovation technology and climate protective effect to her rescue?”

Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity

Joseph, A. A., and *Fagbami, A. H.
Department of Microbial Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences,
University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Human coronaviruses, which hitherto were causative agents of mild respiratory diseases of man, have recently become one of the most important groups of pathogens of humans the world over. In less than two decades, three members of the group, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-COV-2, have emerged causing disease outbreaks that affected millions and claimed the lives of thousands of people. In 2017, another coronavirus, the swine acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS) coronavirus (SADS-CoV) emerged in animals killing over 24,000 piglets in China. Because of the medical and veterinary importance of coronaviruses, we carried out a review of available literature and summarized the current information on their properties and diversity. Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses with some unique characteristics such as the possession of a very large nucleic acid, high infidelity of the RNA-dependent polymerase, and high rate of mutation and recombination in the genome. They are susceptible to a number of physical agents and several chemical agents used for disinfection procedures in hospitals and laboratories. They exhibit considerable genetic and host diversity, causing diseases of gastrointestinal and respiratory system in a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. The high prevalence of coronaviruses in domestic and wild animals, especially bats and birds, and the propensity for their genomes to undergo mutation and recombination may lead to emergence of new coronaviruses that could pose a serious threat to human and animal health.

Keywords: coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-Cov-2, properties, diversity, review Continue reading “Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity”