Prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria

*1Jamiu, M. O., 2Okesola, A. O., 3Ogunleye, V. O., and 1Fasulu, P. E.
1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
3Oyo State Emergency Operations Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234-703-285-9663

Abstract:
Background: Significant bacteriuria is commonly reported in pregnancy which greatly predisposes pregnant women to urinary tract infection (UTI), one of the commonest health challenges in pregnancy worldwide especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as determine the bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Continue reading “Prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria”

Bacteria urinary tract infection in HIV-infected children and adolescents in Abuja, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

  1. 1Okechukwu, A. A., and 2Thairu, Y. Departments of 1Paediatrics and 2Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria
    Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348036719906

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains the second commonest opportunistic infections among HIV infected children. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and causative bacteria of UTI in HIV infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral medications in our health institution. Method: The study was a cross sectional design conducted between October 2017 and March 2018 among HIV infected children and adolescents aged 2 months to 18 years on follow up attendance at the Paediatric Outpatient Special Treatment Clinic (POSTC) of University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH). Early morning midstream urine was collected from each participant for urinalysis, microscopy and aerobic bacterial culture. Bacteria were identified from culture by standard microbiological methods and antibiogram of the isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method. Result: Of 166 HIV infected children and adolescents studied, 106 (63.9%) were males, 82 (49.4%) were in age group 5-10 years, and 110 (66.3%) were from lower socio-economic class. Significant bacteria (UTI) were isolated in 54 (32.5%) subjects, with 38 (70.4%) from females, and 51 (94.4%) from those on first line antiretroviral therapy. Isolates recovered were Escherichia coli 20 (37.0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 16 (29.6%), Staphylococcus aureus 8 (14.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (11.1%), and Proteus mirabilis 4 (7.4%). Leucocyturia in 19 (35.2%), nitrituria in 10 (18.5%), and haematuria in 15 (27.8%) subjects with significant bacteriuria were also recorded. Isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin (81.5%), nalidixic acid (74.1%) and cefuroxime (61.1%), while they were resistant to cotrimoxazole (100%), ampicillin (98.1%) and piperacillin (94.4%). Significant difference was observed in the mean CD4 cell count and viral load of subjects with significant bacteriuria compared to those without; 838.6 ± 177.8 versus 1009.9 ± 234.7 cells/μL (p=0.02), and 10, 360.5 ± 471.0 versus 5, 840.8 ± 563.8 copies/ml (p=0.003) for CD4 cell count and viral load respectively. Conclusion: This study reported a high prevalence of UTI among HIV infected children and adolescents, especially in those with high viral load. Routine screening for UTI should be offered to HIV infected children and adolescents with high viral load.

Keywords: HIV, urinary tract infection, children, adolescents

Received March 4, 2019; Revised June 22, 2019; Accepted July 13, 2019
Copyright 2019 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License (//creativecommmons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Infection des voies urinaires par des bactéries chez des enfants et des adolescents infectés par le VIH à Abuja, au Nigeria: étude transversale

1Okechukwu, A. A., et 2Thairu, Y.
Départements de 1pédiatrie et 2microbiologie, Hôpital universitaire de Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria Correspondance à: [email protected]; +2348036719906
Bacteria UTI in HIV infected children and adolescents Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2019; 20 (4): 306-314
307
Abstrait:

Contexte: L’infection des voies urinaires (UTI) reste la deuxième infection opportuniste la plus répandue chez les enfants infectés par le VIH. Cette étude a été menée pour déterminer la prévalence et la bactérie causale des infections urinaires chez les enfants et les adolescents infectés par le VIH prenant des antirétroviraux dans notre établissement de santé. Méthode: L’étude était une conception transversale menée entre octobre 2017 et mars 2018 chez des enfants et des adolescents infectés par le VIH âgés de 2 mois à 18 ans et suivis à la Clinique de traitement spécial pour enfants ambulatoires (POSTC) de l’Hôpital universitaire de Abuja (UATH) ). Des échantillons d’urine, de microscopie et de cultures bactériennes aérobies ont été recueillis chez chaque participant. Les bactéries ont été identifiées à partir de cultures par des méthodes microbiologiques standard et l’antibiogramme des isolats a été déterminé par la méthode de diffusion sur disque. Résultat: Sur 166 enfants et adolescents infectés par le VIH étudiés, 106 (63,9%) étaient des hommes, 82 (49,4%) étaient âgés de 5 à 10 ans et 110 (66,3%) appartenaient à la classe socio-économique inférieure. Des bactéries significatives (UTI) ont été isolées chez 54 sujets (32,5%), dont 38 (70,4%) de femmes et 51 (94,4%) de celles sous traitement antirétroviral de première intention. Les isolats récupérés étaient Escherichia coli 20 (37,0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 16 (29,6%), Staphylococcus aureus 8 (14,8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (11,1%) et Proteus mirabilis 4 (7,4%). Une leucocyturie chez 19 sujets (35,2%), une nitriturie chez 10 (18,5%) et une hématurie chez 15 sujets (27,8%) présentant une bactériurie importante ont également été enregistrés. Les isolats étaient sensibles à l’ofloxacine (81,5%), à l’acide nalidixique (74,1%) et au céfuroxime (61,1%), tandis qu’ils étaient résistants au cotrimoxazole (100%), à l’ampicilline (98,1%) et à la pipéracilline (94,4%). Une différence significative a été observée entre le nombre moyen de cellules CD4 et la charge virale des sujets présentant une bactériurie significative par rapport à ceux ne présentant pas; 838,6 ± 177,8 par rapport à 1009,9 ± 234,7 cellules/μL (p = 0,02) et 10, 360,5 ± 471,0 par rapport à 5 840,8 ± 563,8 copies/ml (p = 0,003) pour le nombre de cellules CD4 et la charge virale, respectivement. Conclusion: Cette étude a révélé une prévalence élevée d’UTI chez les enfants et les adolescents infectés par le VIH, en particulier chez ceux ayant une charge virale élevée. Un dépistage systématique des infections urinaires doit être proposé aux enfants et aux adolescents à charge virale élevée infectés par le VIH

Mots-clés: VIH, infection des voies urinaires, enfants, adolescents

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Bacteria urinary tract infection in HIV-infected children and adolescents in Abuja, Nigeria a cross-sectional study

The etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections at a private Nigerian teaching hospital in South West Nigeria

C.J. Elikwu, E.O. Shobowale, O.Y. Oluyemi, D.O. Afolabi, D.A. Aderinto, K.I. Onyedibe, A.U. Solarin

 

Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI’s) are among the commonest bacterial infectious disease in clinical practice with a wide range of etiologic agents. It frequently occurs in both the hospital and the community.

Aims/Objectives: To determine the etiology of UTI at BUTH and obtain data on their susceptibility and resistance patterns.

Methods: This was a prospective analysis of data on patients with UTI obtained from in and outpatients over a six month period. Samples had been obtained by clean catch mid-stream urine or suprapubic aspiration. The organisms had been
identified by biochemical methods with susceptibility and resistance testing performed. Data analysis was with EPI-INFO version 3.5.1

Results: There were a total of 200 urine samples that had positive growth. Prevalent organisms were Escherichia coli (48%) and Klebsiella spp (24%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (6.5%). The risk factors for UTI were female gender (p = 0.00), Diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03) and genitourinary surgery (p = 0.04). Effective antibiotics in-vitro to Escherichia coli were Nitrofurantoin and Cefepime at 84.8% and 92.3% respectively; while Cotrimoxazole performed poorly (32.5% susceptibility).

Conclusion: Urinary tract infections are an important cause of morbidity in our environment and inaccuracies in diagnosis will prolong morbidity and may lead to costly and unsafe treatments.The prevalent pathogens in our environment are the Gram negative bacilli, Escherichia coli andKlebsiella pneumoneae. Nitrofurantoin retains efficacy to both urinary pathogens.

Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection, Catheterization, Escherichia coli, Risk factors, Nitrofurantoin

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The etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections at a private Nigerian teaching hospital in South West Nigeria

Urinary tract infections in a Tertiary Hospital in Abuja, Nigeria

KC Iregbu, PI Nwajiobi-Princewill

 

Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. In uncomplicated cases the infection is easily treated with a course of antibiotic, but there is increased resistance to many of these antibiotics.
Objective: To determine the profile of UTI among patients using National Hospital Abuja and the antibiotic susceptibility profile of isolated uropathogens.
Methods: This prospective study was carried out at the department of Medical Microbiology of National Hospital, Abuja over a period of three years (January 2010 – December 2012). A total of 6763 urine samples were analyzed for age, gender, distribution, yield and antibiotics sensitivity.
Results: Of 6763 urine samples, 885 (13.1%) yielded uropathogens, with the highest percentage yield in the below one year and above 57 years age groups. The mean age was 33.9 years and modal group was 25 -32 years. The most common isolates were Escherichia coli 323 (37%) and Klebsiella spp 202 (25%). Although more infections occurred in outpatients than inpatients, the rate was more with inpatients (36% vs 11%). 97% of Klebsiella spp, 89% of E coli and 83% of P.aeruginosa were sensitive to imipenem, while their respective sensitivities to amikacin were 65%, 98% and 96% Most isolates showed high levels of resistance to many other antibiotics tested.
Conclusion: High levels of resistance exist among uropathogens in our study area. This calls for regular surveillance and improved antibiotic stewardship.

Keywords : Urinary tract infection, National Hospital Abuja, antibiotic

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Urinary tract infections in a Tertiary Hospital in Abuja, Nigeria

ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN AND MULTIPLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE INDEX OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA URINE ISOLATES FROM A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

BO Olayinka, OS Olonitola, AT Olayinka, EA Agada

 

Abstract

Urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology diagnostic laboratory of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, were routinely screened for Pseudomonas aeruginosa over a three-month period with 13/150 (8.67%) of the pathogenic bacteria isolated positively identified. All the isolates were resistant to the cheap, commonly available antibiotics; rifampicin, ampicillin/cloxacillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ampicillin but were uniformly susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The high prevalence of multidrug resistance indicates a serious need for broad-based, local antimicrobial resistance surveillance for continuous tracking of antibiotic resistance trends among all clinically relevant isolates and introduction of effective interventions to reduce multidrug resistance in such pathogens.

Key Words: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotic susceptibility, multiple antibiotic resistance, urinary tract infection

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5(2): 198 – 202.