Intestinal schistosomiasis in an apparently healthy rural population in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

* 1Odoya, E. M., 2Edosomwa, E. U., 1Iribhogbe, O. I.,2Damina, A. A., and 3Asojo, O. A.  

 1Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2University of Benin, Nigeria

3National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA                                  

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

 Background: Schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria and three species; Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma intercalatum have been reported in Niger Delta, Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis in rural communities of Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Four rural homogeneous communities; Otuegala, Immiringi, Otuesega, and Ibelebiri in Ogbia Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, were randomly selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to each participant in their native language and used to collect participant’s biodata and swimming history. Stool samples collected from all participants were examined qualitatively by wet preparation and after formolethol concentration. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software and results presented in proportion and tables. Continue reading “Intestinal schistosomiasis in an apparently healthy rural population in Bayelsa State, Nigeria”

Antimicrobial resistance patterns and transferable traits in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from poultry in Tlemcen, Algeria

*Barka, M. S., Cherif-Anntar, A., and Benamar, I.

Laboratory of Applied Microbiology in Food, Biomedical and Environment (LAMAABE), Science Department,

Applied Science and Technique Institute, University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; Tel: 00213556123335; Fax: 0021343277405

Abstract:

Background:  Antibiotics are overused in poultry industry, and this has resulted in the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The current study is aimed at determining antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from poultry in the west of Algeria.

Methodology: Different chicken samples (kidney, bone and intestine) were collected and processed for culture using standard microbiological methods to isolate Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates were identified biochemically using API 20E, while isolated Escherichia coli was typed for O1, O2 and O78 antigens using slide agglutination with specific antisera. All identified isolates were tested against 26 antibiotic disks using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method according to the CLSI standards. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chloramphenicol, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were determined for selected isolates.  Conjugative plasmid transfer, plasmid incompatibility and colicin tests were used to detect transferable resistance traits in 48 selected E. coli isolates. Continue reading “Antimicrobial resistance patterns and transferable traits in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from poultry in Tlemcen, Algeria”

Impact of decalcification on antibacterial properties of eggshell against selected poultry pathogens

*1Balogu, T. V., 1Chukwueze, B. C., and 2Okonkwo, T. P.

1Department of Microbiology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

 

Abstract:

 Background: Eggshell which is primarily composed of more than 98% calcium carbonate crystal, serves as the physical protective and active barrier structure of egg content. Recently, antimicrobial properties of eggshell are fast becoming center of interest among stakeholders of poultry industry. However, few studies have focused on the rigidity factor of calcium components of eggshell as antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was designed to determine the effect of decalcification on the ability of eggshell to inhibit common poultry and egg bacterial pathogens.

Methods: Raw eggshell denoted as calcified eggshell (CES) and decalcified eggshell (DES) were extracted and made into fine powder. Standard protocol was used for preparations of CES and DES at concentrations of 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg/ml, and their antibacterial assays on selected bacterial pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) were performed by agar diffusion method. Gentamicin 80mg solution (CC1) and distilled water (CC2) served as controls. Data were analysed with SPSS version 20.0 and presented as mean±SD for descriptive statistics. Friedman’s two-way test ANOVA was used to compare the differences in mean values between CES, DES, CC1 and CC2 at significance level of p<0.05. Continue reading “Impact of decalcification on antibacterial properties of eggshell against selected poultry pathogens”

Salmonella Dublin associated with abortion in dairy cattle in Algiers and comparison of different diagnostic methods

*1Hezil, Dj., 2Zaidi, S., 1Benseghir, H., 1Zineddine, R., 3Benamrouche, N., and 1Ghalmi, F.

 1Research Laboratory Management of Local Animal Resources, Higher National Veterinary School, El Alia, Oued Smar, 1615, Algiers, Algeria

2Higher National Veterinary School, El Alia, Oued Smar, 1615, Algiers, Algeria

3Laboratory of Enterobacteria and other related bacteria, Institute Pasteur of Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: In cattle, many serotypes of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a wide variety of clinical manifestations, which can cause considerable economic loss. Some serotypes can cause cows to abort sporadically, such as the Dublin serotype. This study was carried out on different cattle farms in the Algiers region to determine the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin using bacteriological and immunological methods.

Methodology: The prevalence of Salmonella was determined by bacteriological analysis in accordance with the reference method AFNOR NF U 47-100 on faecal samples collected from 184 cattle belonging to 19 different farms, and serotyping for S. Dublin. Immunological analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for S. Dublin was carried out on milk samples collected from 91 cattle. A survey of case (n=5) and control (n=14) farms for comparative analysis was performed to demonstrate a link between abortion in cows and prevalence of S. Dublin with both bacteriological and immunological methods. Sensitivity, specificity, Cohen Kappa coefficient, McNemar test odds ratios, and confidence intervals were calculated using Winepiscope 2.0 and StatA 9.1 software, and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.         Continue reading “Salmonella Dublin associated with abortion in dairy cattle in Algiers and comparison of different diagnostic methods”

Correlation between faecal indicator bacteria in diarrheagenic stools and hospital wastewaters: implication on public health

Olalemi, A., Oladejo, B., and *Bayode, M.

Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Hospital wastewaters contain blends of inorganic, natural constituents and contaminants that carry significant health risk when released directly into the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between faecal indicator bacteria in diarrheagenic stools and wastewaters generated in University of

Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital complex, Akure, Nigeria.

Methodology: Quantification of faecal indicator bacteria was carried out on diarrheagenic faecal samples collected from 55 hospitalized patients and 68 wastewater samples from the medical laboratory science and laundry units of the hospital over of period of 12 weeks. Standard membrane filtration technique was performed using membrane intestinal enterococcus (m-ENT), membrane faecal coliform (m-FC), membrane lauryl sulphate (MLSA), eosin methylene blue (EMB) and Salmonella-Shigella (SS) agar plates, which were incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours (MLSA, EMB and SSA), 44ºC for 24 hours (m-FC); and 37ºC for 48 hours (m-ENT). Bacterial colonies on agar plates were counted and expressed as colony forming units (CFU) per 100ml of diarrheagenic stool and wastewater. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the level of faecal indicator bacteria in diarrheagenic stools and wastewaters at p<0.05 level of significance (and 95% confidence interval).

Continue reading “Correlation between faecal indicator bacteria in diarrheagenic stools and hospital wastewaters: implication on public health”

Microbial contamination of Naira notes circulating in Bauchi metropolis: prevalence, microbial load and detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing  Gram-negative bacteria

1Usman, M.,2Sani J.,3Ibrahim, A., and *4Olowo-okere, A  

1Department of Pharmacy, Nigerian Air Force Reference Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria     

3Department of Medical Microbiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria

4Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

 Background: Globally, contamination of banknotes with various microbial species is increasingly being reported. This usually results from improper handling during exchange of goods and services. In the present study, we aimed to determine the microbial load, prevalence and the presence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) among bacteria isolated from the Nigerian Naira notes circulating in Bauchi metropolis.

Methodology: A total of 400 Naira notes of various denominations were randomly collected aseptically, cultured and total viable counts determined. The isolated microbial species were identified using standard microbiological techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates and detection of ESBL were determined by Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method and Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST), respectively. Continue reading “Microbial contamination of Naira notes circulating in Bauchi metropolis: prevalence, microbial load and detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing  Gram-negative bacteria”

Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial consumption and resistance: 2015-2018 longitudinal survey results from Nigeria

*1Umeokonkwo, C. D., 2Oduyebo, O. O., 3Fadeyi, A., 4Versporten, A., 5Ola-Bello, O. I,  6Fowotade, A., 7Elikwu, C. J., 4Pauwels, I., 6Kehinde, A., 8Ekuma, A.,           4Goossens, H., 9Adedosu, A. N., 10Nwafia, I. N., 11Nwajiobi-Princewill, P., 2Ogunsola, F. T., 12Olayinka, A. T., and 11Iregbu, K. C.                            

1Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

2College of Medicine/Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

3University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

4Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

5State Specialist Hospital, Akure, Nigeria

6College of Medicine/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

7Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

8University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

9Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo Nigeria

10University of Nigeria, Teaching Hospital Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

11National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

12Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

 

Abstract:

 Background: Nigeria joined the global community in monitoring antimicrobial prescribing practices since 2015. Results of individual hospital Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) have stimulated efforts at instituting hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes. We report the trends of antimicrobial prescribing rates and quality indicators for 3 surveillance periods; 2015, 2017 and 2018.

Methodology: The web-based Global-PPS for surveillance of antimicrobial use in hospitals (www.globalpps.com) was completed by each participating hospital site for all inpatients receiving antimicrobials on a selected day in 2015, 2017 and 2018. Data included details on antimicrobial agents, reasons and indications for treatment and a set of quality prescribing indicators. Data were validated by the web-based data management system of University of Antwerp, exported into Microsoft Excel and analyzed with EPI INFO version 7.2. Continue reading “Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial consumption and resistance: 2015-2018 longitudinal survey results from Nigeria”

Roll out of a successful antimicrobial stewardship programme in Lagos University Teaching Hospital Nigeria using the Global-Point Prevalence Survey 

*1,4Oshun, P. O., 2Roberts, A. A., 1,4Osuagwu, C. S., 3Akintan, P. E., 3Fajolu, I. B.,     4Ola-Bello, O. I., 2Odukoya, O. O., 2Akodu, B., 5Okunowo, A. A., 6Versporten, A.,  6Pauwels, I., 6Goosens, H., 7Busari, A. A., 7Olusanya, A. W., 7Nwaiwu, O., 3Temiye, E. O., Osibogun, A. O., 8Bode, C. O., 9Antimicrobial Stewardship Committee., and 1,4Oduyebo, O. O.                                     

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos

2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos

3Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos

4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos

5Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos

6Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium

7Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology College of Medicine, University of Lagos

8Department of Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos

9Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos *Correspondence to: [email protected]

 

Abstract:

 Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a public health emergency with increasing rates and spread globally. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) has been advocated to reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance, promote rational and appropriate use of antibiotics and improve clinical outcomes. Education and training are one of the AMS interventions to improve antimicrobial use. We present the roll out of a successful AMS programme with education and training using the Global-PPS as data collection tool to measure AMS interventions and impact. Continue reading “Roll out of a successful antimicrobial stewardship programme in Lagos University Teaching Hospital Nigeria using the Global-Point Prevalence Survey “

Empirical antibiotherapy as a potential driver of antibiotic resistance: observations from a point prevalence survey of antibiotic consumption and resistance in Gombe, Nigeria

*1Manga, M. M., 1Ibrahim, M., 2Hassan, U. M., 2Joseph, R. H., 2Muhammad, A. S.,  3Danimo, M. A., 4Ganiyu, O., 5Versporten, A., and 6Oduyebo, O. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Gombe State University/ Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria                 

3Department of Community Medicine, Gombe State University/Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria

4Department of Medicine, Gombe State University/Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria

5Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

6Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Lagos/Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Empirical use of antibiotics is a standard practice in the treatment of infections worldwide. However, its over utilization without subsequent culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing could be a major driver of resistance. Over reliance on empirical antibiotherapy is common in most developing countries where antibiotic policies and availability or utilization of clinical microbiology laboratory are suboptimal. A standardized approach to point prevalence survey (PPS) on antimicrobial use (AMU) in hospitals was employed to assess the antimicrobial prescribing practices in Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe (FTHG), Nigeria.

Methodology: A PPS was conducted in April 2019 at FTHG by recruiting all in-patients present in the hospital on the day of survey. Data obtained from patients’ records included details of the type and indication for antibiotherapy. A customized online application developed by the University of Antwerp (www.globalpps.be) was used for data-entry, validation, analysis and reporting.      Continue reading “Empirical antibiotherapy as a potential driver of antibiotic resistance: observations from a point prevalence survey of antibiotic consumption and resistance in Gombe, Nigeria”

Antibiogram of Pseudomonas species: an important tool to combat antibiotic resistance for patient safety in Gombe, Nigeria

   1Manga, M. M., *1Ibrahim, M., 2Isaac, E. W., 3Hassan, M. D., 3Muhammad, G.,  3Hassan, U. M., and 4Yunusa-Kaltungo, Z.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Gombe State University/ Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria

2Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Gombe State University/  Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria

4Plastic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348060232264

Abstract:

Background: Pseudomonas species are responsible for different healthcare-associated infections and are inherently resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. Hospital antibiograms are either absent or not regularly available in most healthcare facilities in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to present the antibiogram of Pseudomonas isolates in Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe (FTHG) in order to guide antibiotic prescription for better patient safety in the hospital.    Continue reading “Antibiogram of Pseudomonas species: an important tool to combat antibiotic resistance for patient safety in Gombe, Nigeria”