Hygiene quality of traditional and industrial table olives from markets in Rabat-Salé and Temara cities in Morocco

*1Mennane, Z., 2Houlali, I., 3Charof, R., 1Abrini, J., and 1Elmtili, N.

1Food and Health Team, Laboratory of Biology and Health, Faculty of Science, Abdelmalek Essaidi University, P. O. Box 2121, Tetouan, Morocco

2Faculty of Science and Technology, Beni Mellal, Environment Laboratory, Morocco

3Laboratory of Medical Bacteriology, National Institute of Hygiene, Rabat, Morocco

Correspondence to: [email protected]; 212634564754

Abstract:

Background: Table olives are one of the most important vegetable canning products in Morocco, which is considered one of the world’s largest producing countries. Currently, many outlets prepare table olives by different methods that do not comply with standard hygiene practices. Hence, this research was conducted to assess the quality standard of these olives by evaluating their physico-chemical and microbiological properties. Continue reading “Hygiene quality of traditional and industrial table olives from markets in Rabat-Salé and Temara cities in Morocco”

Evaluation of a cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay test for rapid detection of cryptococcal infection in HIV-negative patients in Ibadan, Nigeria

*1,2,4Fayemiwo, S. A., 1,2Makanjuola, O. B., 1Nwaokenye, J., and 3Owolabi, M. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: A number of studies have been conducted in Nigeria on the prevalence of cryptococcal infections mostly on HIV-infected patients using culture, India ink and/or latex agglutination tests. These tests are either laborious, time-consuming and expensive or have low sensitivity, thus limiting their use. Cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assays (LFA) were introduced in the last decade as rapid user-friendly tests for diagnosis. In this study, we sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of an LFA kit for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in the serum of HIV-negative patients with or without cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Continue reading “Evaluation of a cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay test for rapid detection of cryptococcal infection in HIV-negative patients in Ibadan, Nigeria”

Positivity yield of HIV index testing services from selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria

Emeh, A., *Usman, S. O., Adebanjo, A. M., Ogboghodo, E., Akinbinu, B., Suraju, A., Udechukwu, C., Ale, J., Ariyo, A., Owolagba, F. E., Jolayemi, T., and Okonkwo, P.

APIN Public Health Initiatives, Abuja, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract: Background: Index testing is a voluntary process whereby HIV seropositive clients are counselled and, after obtaining consent, their sexual and needle sharing partners are offered HIV testing services. Index testing has been associated with high HIV positivity yield. The aim of this study is to determine the positivity yield and identify factors influencing the yield from index testing strategy in selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. Continue reading “Positivity yield of HIV index testing services from selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria”

Profile of bacterial pathogens contaminating hands of healthcare workers during daily routine care of patients at a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria

1Ige, O. T., 2Jimoh, O., 3Ige, S. O., 4Ijei, I. P., 5Zubairu, H., and 2Olayinka, A. T.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Kaduna, Nigeria

3Department of Paediatrics, Yusuf Dantsofo Specialist Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria

4Department of Hematology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

5Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected]; Mobile: 08133831264

Abstract:

Background: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) have been recognized as a critical challenge affecting the quality of healthcare services provided. A significant proportion of these infections result from cross-contamination of microorganisms which are often acquired and spread by direct contact with patients or contaminated adjacent environmental surfaces through the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs). The objectives of this study are to profile bacterial pathogens commonly found on the hands of health care workers while routinely attending to patients in the healthcare facility and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Continue reading “Profile of bacterial pathogens contaminating hands of healthcare workers during daily routine care of patients at a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria”

A call: COVID-19 research funding in Africa

*1,8Oladipo, E. K., 2Ajayi, A. F., 3Oladipo, A. A., 4Ariyo, O. E., 5Oladipo, B. B., 6Ajayi, L. O., and 7Oloke, J. K.

1Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Immunology, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

2Department of Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

3Department of Haematology and Blood Grouping Serology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife Wesley Guild Hospital Wing, Osun State, Nigeria

4Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

5Department of Clinical Nursing, Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria 6Department of Biochemistry, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

7Department of Natural Science, Precious Cornerstone University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

8Genomics Unit, Helix Biogen Consult, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected] Continue reading “A call: COVID-19 research funding in Africa”

Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity

Joseph, A. A., and *Fagbami, A. H.
Department of Microbial Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences,
University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Human coronaviruses, which hitherto were causative agents of mild respiratory diseases of man, have recently become one of the most important groups of pathogens of humans the world over. In less than two decades, three members of the group, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-COV-2, have emerged causing disease outbreaks that affected millions and claimed the lives of thousands of people. In 2017, another coronavirus, the swine acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS) coronavirus (SADS-CoV) emerged in animals killing over 24,000 piglets in China. Because of the medical and veterinary importance of coronaviruses, we carried out a review of available literature and summarized the current information on their properties and diversity. Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses with some unique characteristics such as the possession of a very large nucleic acid, high infidelity of the RNA-dependent polymerase, and high rate of mutation and recombination in the genome. They are susceptible to a number of physical agents and several chemical agents used for disinfection procedures in hospitals and laboratories. They exhibit considerable genetic and host diversity, causing diseases of gastrointestinal and respiratory system in a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. The high prevalence of coronaviruses in domestic and wild animals, especially bats and birds, and the propensity for their genomes to undergo mutation and recombination may lead to emergence of new coronaviruses that could pose a serious threat to human and animal health.

Keywords: coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-Cov-2, properties, diversity, review Continue reading “Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity”

Salmonella Kentucky: prevalence and challenges in Nigeria and the Africa continent

Igomu, E. E.
Bacterial Vaccine Production Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, P. M. B. 01 Vom, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348032786224

Abstract:

Salmonella Kentucky is ubiquitous in most African countries and the multidrug resistant (MDR) strains remain underreported across the continent. In Nigeria, poverty, inter country livestock trades, nomadic system of cattle production, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and prevalent immuno-compromising diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and tuberculosis are factors that have enabled ease of transmission and complications of S. Kentucky infections. In the present decade, S. Kentucky is reported to be the most prevalent serovar associated with poultry in Nigeria, but very few reports underline the risk associated with consumption of poultry and acquisition of MDR S. Kentucky strains. The Nigerian poultry is one of the most commercialized subsectors of Nigerian agriculture, therefore, the presence of S. Kentucky especially strains carrying broad spectrum antimicrobial resistance pose a great risk to public health. The lack of proper monitoring, surveillance, isolation and control of the multidrug resistant S. Kentucky will remain a challenge to the export potential of the Nigerian poultry subsector and livestock in general. As a nation, modalities and actions against the smuggling of poultry products, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and nomadic system for the production of dairy and beef that promotes spread of virulent strains of Salmonellae must change. The impact of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans in Nigeria also remains under studied and under reported, especially those caused by S. Kentucky ST198. Compounding these concerns is the lack of commercial veterinary or human vaccines against S. Kentucky or where vaccines against the broad serogroup C non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are available, they are rarely supplied, with no evidence they could be cross-protective. This review emphasizes the emergence and widespread occurrence of MDR S. Kentucky strains on the African continent, and discussed risk factors contributing to its spread in Nigeria and the potential public health challenge especially to high-risk immunocompromised individuals.
Keywords: Salmonella Kentucky, ST198 strain, multidrug resistant, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, Nigeria, Africa
Received April 30, 2020; Revised May 8, 2020; Accepted May 10, 2020
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.
Salmonella Kentucky: prévalence et défis au Nigeria et sur le continent africain
Igomu, E. E.
Division de la production de vaccins bactériens, Institut national de recherche vétérinaire, P. M. B. 01 Vom, Nigéria Correspondance à: [email protected]; +2348032786224 Continue reading “Salmonella Kentucky: prevalence and challenges in Nigeria and the Africa continent”

Co-infections of MERS-CoV with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia

*1Al-Quthami, K., 2Al-Waneen, W. S., and 3Al Johnyi, B. O.

1Regional Laboratory, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

2National Centre of Agricultural Technology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia

3King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

 

Abstract:

Background: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a member of the coronaviruses called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The co-infections of MERS-CoV with other respiratory viruses have been documented in rare cases in the scientific literature. This study was carried out to determine whether confection of MERS-CoV occurs with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs samples of 57 MERS-CoV positive outpatients were collected using flocked swabs. Nucleic acid was extracted from each sample using commercial NucliSens easyMAG system. Amplification was performed by multiplex RT-PCR using Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory Pathogen 33. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 19 and comparison of variables was done with Fisher Exact test, with p value <0.05 considered significant.

Results: Six of the total 57 MERS-COV patients (35 males, 22 females) were positive for co-infection of MERS CoV with other respiratory viruses, giving a prevalence rate of 10.5%, with 14.5% (5/35) in males and 4.5% (1/22) in females (OR=3.500, 95% CI=0.3806-32.188, p=0.3889). The prevalence of co-infections was significantly higher among non-Saudis (23.8%, 5/21) than Saudis (2.8%, 1/36) (OR=0.09143, 95% CI=0.009855-0.8485, p=0.0217), and among the age group 18-34 years (25%, 3/12) than other age groups (X2=3.649, p=0.1613). Human rhinovirus (HRV) was found in 2 of the 6 (33.3%) patients with co-infection while the other viruses were found in each of the remaining 4 patients.

Conclusion: Our study confirms that MERS-CoV co-infects with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: MERS-CoV, URTI,  Co-infection, Coronavirus Continue reading “Co-infections of MERS-CoV with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia”

Infections of implantable cardiac devices by biofilm forming bacteria in western Algeria hospitals

1Meziani, Z., 1Hassaine, H., and 2Belhachemi, F.

1Laboratory of Applied Microbiology in Food, Biomedical and Environment (LAMAABE), University of Tlemcen, Algeria

2Department of Cardiology, Hospital of Tlemcen, Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; 00213553406801

Abstract:

Background: The significant increase in the use of implantable cardiac devices (ICDs) has been accompanied by biofilm formation and increase rate of infection on the devices. The purpose of our study is to describe the clinical and microbiological findings of infection of ICDs in the cardiology units of western Algeria hospitals.

Methodology: All patients with clinical diagnosis of ICD infections or infective endocarditis upon removal of their ICDs from December 2012 to August 2014 in cardiology units of 4 Algerian hospitals were included in the study. Each element of the ICD pocket and lead was separately sonicated in sterile saline, inoculated onto Chapman and MacConkey agar plates and incubated aerobically at 37oC for colony count after 24 hours. Biochemical identification of the bacteria isolates was made by API 20E, API 20 NE and API Staph, and confirmed by Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics WalkAway® 96 Plus System. Antibiotic susceptibility testing on each isolate was performed by the disk diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Biofilm formation was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA) and Tissue Culture Plate (TCP) methods, and hydrophobicity of the bacterial cell was determined by the MATH protocol.

Results: Over a period of twenty-one months, 17 ICDs were removed from patients with post-operative infections; 6 (35.3%) had early infection of ICD and 11 (64.7%) had late ICD infection. Fifty-four bacterial strains were isolated and identified, with coagulase-negative staphylococci being the predominant bacteria with 46.3% (25/54). There was no significant association between hydrophobicity and antimicrobial resistance in the 54 isolates but there is positive correlation between biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance, with the strongest biofilm producers resistant to more than one antibiotic. Four independent predictors of infection of resynchronization devices were reported; reoperation, multi-morbidity, long procedure, and ICD implantation.

Conclusion: Our study is the first in Algeria to describe microbiological characteristics of ICD infection. The bacteria in the biofilm were protected, more resistant and tolerated high concentrations of antibiotics and thus played a major role in the development of ICD infections. Despite the improvements in ICD design and implantation techniques, ICD infection remains a serious challenge.

Keywords: implantable cardiac devices, staphylococci, resistance, biofilm, hydrophobicity Continue reading “Infections of implantable cardiac devices by biofilm forming bacteria in western Algeria hospitals”

Effects of certain disinfectants and antibiotics on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from medical devices at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

*1,2Kara Terki, I., 1Hassaine, H., 3Kara Terki, A., 4Nadira, B., 5Kara Terki, N., 1Bellifa, S., 1Mhamedi, I., and 1,5lachachi, M.

1Laboratory of Food, Biomedical and Environnemental Microbiology (LAMAABE)

2University of Djilali lyabes, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

3University Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen, Algeria

4Ecole Supérieure de Management, Tlemcen, Algeria

5University Belhadj Chouaib Ain Temouchent, Algeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the species of bacteria most frequently isolated from medical devices. The ability to produce biofilm is an important step in the pathogenesis of these staphylococci infection, and biofilm formation is strongly dependent on environmental conditions as well as antibiotics and disinfectants used in the treatment and prevention of infections.

Methodology: In this study, 28 S. aureus isolated from medical devices at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes in Northwestern Algeria were tested for biofilm formation by culture on Red Congo Agar (RCA). The tube method (TM) and tissue culture plate (TCP) techniques were also used to investigate the effect of penicillin, ethanol and betadine on pre-formed biofilm.
Results: Nineteen S. aureus isolates produced biofilm on the RCA and 7 produced biofilms by the tube method, 2 of which were high producer. In addition, 9 S. aureus isolates produced biofilm on polystyrene micro-plates, and in the presence of penicillin and ethanol, this number increased to 19 and 11 biofilm producing S. aureus isolates respectively. On the other hand, no biofilm was formed in the presence of betadine.

Conclusion: It is important to test for biofilm formation following an imposed external constraint such as disinfectants and antibiotics in order to develop new strategies to combat bacterial biofilms but also to better control their formation.

Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, biofilm, medical device, disinfectant, antibiotic

Continue reading “Effects of certain disinfectants and antibiotics on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from medical devices at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria”