Onchocerciasis in communities in forest zone, South West Nigeria: prevalence and diagnostic method for rapid assessment

O.A. Adeyeba, A.A. Adegoke



To determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis and diagnostic method for a rapid assessment of the disease in Iwo Local Government Area (LGA) of Osun State, Nigeria.
Method: the study area was randomly selected using lottery method. The study subjects are from all works of life of both sexes and not below the age of 10. Structured questionnaire was administered to obtain vital epidemiological information from study subjects. Skin snip as standard method of diagnosing onchocerciasis was done using method as described and was compared with other potential diagnostic indicators. The methods of sample analysis are described. Data were analysed by using correlation coefficient, Duncan multiple range test, and analysis of variance where appropriate.
Results: of the 240 subjects examined, 35.4% were skin snip positive. Whereas infection increases with age of subjects (P<0.05), the difference in the infection among male and female subjects is not significant (P > 0.05). Of all the methods of diseases assessment, only nodule palpation method correlate well with the standard diagnostic method skin snip.
Conclusion: the merit of nodule palpation and criteria for the determination are discussed. Nodule palpation assessment method (NPAM) was recommended as an alternative rapid assessment method of large scale surveillance of onchocerciasis in Nigeria. NPAM could be used for monitoring and evaluation of the current programme of mectizan distribution in the country.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2002 3(1): 29-32)

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Public health importance of lassa fever epidemiology, clinical features and current management review of literature

I.S. Abdulraheem



The public health importance of Lassa fever can not be over emphasized if one considers the high infectivity and mortality rates associated with the disease. This study dealt extensively on the epidemiology, clinical features and current management of Lassa fever through literature review. The aim of this study is to sensitise the public on what it needs to know on Lassa fever as well as updating the knowledge of health workers on current management of the disease and important precautive measures to take when handling a patient with Lassa fever. Strict barrier nursing, isolation, use of protective devices are important preventive measures when managing a patient with Lassa fever infection. As Lassa fever may have a long incubation period (Up to 20 days), it is possible that travellers from endemic areas may be incubating the disease. However, one case of Lassa fever entering a non-endemic area should not cause fear of an epidemic as long as correct infection control procedures are followed.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2002 3(1): 33-37)

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Survey Of Antibodies To Newcastle Disease Virus In Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerian Indigenous Chickens (Gallus domesticus) In Ibadan Using Elisa

O.G. Ohore, P.C. Ozegbe, B.O. Emikpe, V.E. Okojie



The prevalence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Nigerian indigenous chickens raised in Ibadan was surveyed using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera from 161 chickens from 3 are as of Ibadan viz University campus, Agbowo and Oremeji were analysed. The prevalence rate obtained ranged between 52.5% and 83.4% with an overall prevalence of 73.3%. The extent and implication of NDV activity in the Nigerian indigenous chicken as well as the advantages, sensitivity and usefulness of ELISA in serological investigation were discussed.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2002 3(1): 38-40)

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An assessment of existing common traditional methods of water purification

T. Idika N. Odugbemi, F. T Ogunsola



Classical water purification methods include boiling, filtration, irradiation and the use of chemicals while traditional water purification methods in use are boiling, filtration, sedimentation, long storage and solar radiation. Waterborne diseases are m ore common in the rural communities where potable water supply coverage is usually low. Therefore, this study was designed to assess and modify existing water purification methods in use in the rural communities so as to encourage their regular use.
Water samples collected from various sources serving six rural communities in Agege, Epe and Ikorodu Local Government areas of Lagos State were purified using each of the traditional methods. Viable counts were carried out on each of the water samples before and after the purification process. Water samples contamination with known pathogens were also included in the test.
The boiling method was the most efficient giving 100% decontamination after three minutes of continuous boiling. The solar method gave varying degrees of decontamination of the water samples (42-100%) depending on the turbidity of the water and the type of container used for the test. The long storage method and the cloth filtration methods decontaminated the water by (0.6-4.2%) and 41% respectively.
The solar water purification method should be encouraged. Turbid water samples should be cloth filtered prior to exposure to the sun for maximum efficiency.
(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2002 3(1): 41-44)
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Effect Of Acute Caprine Trypanosomiasis On Haemoglobin, Urea And Serum Electrolytes

J.N Abenga, S.A. Sanda, T.B. Idowu, F.A.G. Lawani



The effect of acute caprine trypanosomiasis on haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, urea and serum electrolytes was studied in Red Sokoto goats infected with Trypanosoma vivax. The course of infection lasted only two weeks when the infected goats died of fulminating parasitaemia and high fever. Haemoglobin concentation of the infected goats was only slightly decreased. However, the serum urea level was significantly increased (P <0.05) while Cl, K+ and HCO3 levels were slightly increased above pre-infection values by week two post infection (PI). Serum Na+ increased only in the first week PI but returned to pre-infection values by the second week.
(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2002 3(1): 45-47)
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