Antimicrobial activity of selected nutraceutical plants used in Northern Uganda

*1Ikinyom, N., 2Lamwaka, A. V., 3Malagala, A. T., and 4Ndyomugyenyi, E. K.

1Department of Environment, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

3Institute of Peace and Strategic Studies, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

4Department of Animal Production and Range Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

*Correspondence to: & Tel: +256 0772-389056

Background: Nutraceutical plants (NP) play a vital role as supportive treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). However, there is limited scientific evidence on the efficacy of NP to justify their extensive use. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three nutraceutical plants which are commonly used as antimicrobials. Continue reading “Antimicrobial activity of selected nutraceutical plants used in Northern Uganda”

Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica Linn (Mango) bark and leaf extracts on bacteria isolated from domestic wastewater samples

1Omotayo, O. E., 2Oladipo, G. A., 3Adekunle, D. O., and 2Akinola, O. T.

1Pure and Applied Biology Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science,
P. M. B 284, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
2Microbiology Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, P.M.B 284, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
3Industrial Chemistry Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science,
P. M. B 284, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
*Correspondence to:; +234 802 379 9838

Background: Wastewaters generated from ubiquitous use of water in daily human activities often contains various pathogenic microorganisms, which may contaminate surface or ground waters when released indiscriminately into the environment. Consumption of natural water resources polluted by such contaminated wastewaters may compromise public health and decrease the populations of aquatic organisms in such water bodies. Mangifera indica (mango) plants have been widely used as remedy for treatment of a wide range of water borne ailments. This study was therefore conducted to identify bacteria contaminating wastewaters from domestic sources and to determine the antibacterial potentials of mango bark and leaf extracts against them. Continue reading “Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica Linn (Mango) bark and leaf extracts on bacteria isolated from domestic wastewater samples”

Optimization of culture conditions for antimetabolite production by a rare tea garden actinobacterial isolate, Amycolatopsis sp. ST-28

Alam, M., and *Jha, D. K.

Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
*Correspondence to:


Background: Microbial metabolites are of great importance to the pharmaceutical industries. There is an urgent need of novel microbial metabolites in the present scenario to combat antimicrobial resistance. Selection and screening of potent microbial strains for production of antimicrobial metabolites as well as optimization of their culture conditions is of utmost importance in drug discovery. Therefore, the study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nutritional and cultural conditions on the production of bioactive metabolites by a rare tea garden actinobacterial strain Amycolatopsis sp. ST-28. Materials and methods: Submerged fermentation of the actinobacterial isolate was carried out on different culture media and different culture conditions such as carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum volume, pH, fermentation period and agitation speed. The culture filtrate was assayed against Staphylococcus aureus. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the maximum diameter of zone of inhibition (mm). The dried mycelial weight (mg) in a fixed volume of culture media was used for the determination of the total biomass produced. Results: Maximum bioactive metabolite and biomass production was observed when submerged fermentation was carried out with mannose and peptone respectively as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. Maintaining other environmental parameters viz. inoculum 11% (v/v), pH of 6.5, temperature of 32ºC and incubation period of 11 days at 150 rpm were found optimum for maximum antimicrobial activity. Conclusion: This study demonstrated optimized cultural conditions for improved production of antimicrobial compound by Amycolatopsis sp. ST-28

Keywords: Amycolatopsis, antimicrobial, submerged fermentation, optimization.


Optimisation des conditions de culture pour la production d’antimétabolites par un isolat rare d’actinobactéries de jardin de thé, Amycolatopsis sp. ST-28

Alam, M., and *Jha, D. K.

Laboratoire d’écologie microbienne, Département de botanique,
Université Gauhati, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India

* Correspondance à:


Contexte: Les métabolites microbiens revêtent une grande importance pour les industries pharmaceutiques. Il existe un besoin urgent de nouveaux métabolites microbiens dans le scénario actuel pour lutter contre la résistance aux antimicrobiens. La sélection et le criblage de souches microbiennes puissantes pour la production de métabolites antimicrobiens, ainsi que l’optimisation de leurs conditions de culture, revêtent une importance capitale pour la découverte de médicaments. Par conséquent, l’étude a été réalisée pour évaluer l’effet des conditions nutritionnelles et culturelles sur la production de métabolites bioactifs par une rare souche d’actinobactéries de jardin de thé, Amycolatopsis sp. ST-28. Matériels et méthodes: La fermentation immergée de l’isolat actinobactérien a été réalisée sur différents milieux de culture et différentes conditions de culture tels que les sources de carbone et d’azote, le volume d’inoculum, le pH, la période de fermentation et la vitesse d’agitation. Le filtrat de culture a été testé contre Staphylococcus aureus. La méthode de diffusion sur puits d’agar a été utilisée pour déterminer le diamètre maximum de la zone d’inhibition (mm). Le poids du mycélium séché (mg) dans un volume fixe de milieu de culture a été utilisé pour la détermination de la biomasse totale produite. Résultats: Une production maximale de métabolites bioactifs et de biomasse a été observée lors de la fermentation en immersion avec du mannose et de la peptone, respectivement, comme seule source de carbone et d’azote. Maintenir d’autres paramètres environnementaux à savoir. inoculum 11% (v / v), pH de 6,5, température de 32 ° C et période d’incubation de 11 jours à 150 tr / min ont été jugés optimaux pour une activité antimicrobienne maximale. Conclusion: Cette étude a démontré des conditions de culture optimisées pour une production améliorée de composé antimicrobien par Amycolatopsis sp. ST-28

Mots clés: Amycolatopsis, antimicrobien, fermentation en immersion, optimisation

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Optimization of culture conditions for antimetabolite production by a rare tea garden actinobacterial isolate, Amycolatopsis sp. ST-28

Antimicrobial activity of moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi, and vancomycin resistant cocci isolated at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

M.D. Mukhtar, S.A. Orah, Y Mohammed



This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi and vancomycin resistant cocci. The plant material was extracted with methanol and petroleum ethe and screened for phytochemical contents. The microbial isolates were obtained from females and males patients (both adults and children) attending ear, nose and throat clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Coccal bacteria and fungi were isolated accordingly. The cocci were screened for vancomycin resistance. The antimicrobial assay was carried out using gradient double (12.5-100mg/mL) assay. The MIC, MBC/MFC and Brine shrimp toxicity test were also conducted. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus pneumoniaeCandida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were isolated. Up to 21.4% of S. aureus were vancomycin resistant, 20% of S. pneumoniae isolated were vancomycin resistant and 16.7% S. pyogenes were vancomycin resistant. The plant extracts showed zones of inhibition of 08mm-20mm at concentrations ranging from 12.5-100mg/mL. The most susceptible organism to both extracts was C. albicans and the least susceptible was S. aureus. The MIC of the methanol extracts ranged from 0.78 to 50mg/mL but MBC/MFC ranged from 6.25 to 200mg/mL. The MIC of the petroleum ether was at 50 to 200mg/mL and the MBC/MFC was from 200 to 800mg/mL. The brine shrimp lethality assay showed LC50 value of 93.48μg/mL for Moringa methanol extract while the LC50 value for Moringa petroleum ether extract was 3.691μg/mL. Moringa methanol extract (100mg/mL), showed appreciable activity against the fungal isolates and vancomycin resistant cocci associated with Ear, Nose and Throat symptoms while Moringa petroleum ether extract showed activity only on the fungal isolate C. albicans. The study demonstrated that Moringa methanol extracts was more active than Moringa petroleum ether extracts. The search for novel cytotoxic ingredient in Moringa should be encouraged.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Moringa, Ear, Nose, Throat, Fungi, Vancomycin, Resistant, Cocci

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae causing urinary tract infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso



Antimicrobial activity of Lycoperdon perlatum whole fruit body on common pathogenic bacteria and fungi

U.K. Akpi, C.K. Odoh, E.E. Ideh, U.S. Adobu



Antimicrobial activities of extracts of fruit bodies of Lycoperdon perlatum against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coliBacillus cereusCandida albicans and Candida glabrata were investigated. Antimicrobial components from the mushrooms were extracted using ethanol, methanol and water. The antimicrobial activities were examined by agar well diffusion method. The MIC, MBC and MFC were evaluated for each extract of the mushroom. The aqueous extract of Lycoperdon perlatum inhibited the growth of all the tested pathogenic organisms except P. aeruginosa while the methanol and ethanol extracts inhibited all the tested organisms. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of varying levels of bioactive compounds. Flavonoids, saponins, protein and carbohydrate were detected in all the extracts while glycosides, alkaloids and tannins were found in some. The results obtained from this study suggest that Lycoperdon perlatum has broad-spectrum of activity against microbial isolates used.

Keywords: Lycoperdon perlatum, antimicrobial, phytochemicals, well diffusion

Antimicrobial activity of Lycoperdon perlatum whole fruit body on common pathogenic bacteria and fungi


AA Akanbi II, SS Taiwo, SK Babatunde, BA Onile, IS Abdulraheem



Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem, particularly among previously sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The emergence of wide spread resistance to antimicrobial agents complicates therapy of infections caused by these organisms. Between January and December 2002, one hundred and fifty-eight isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae at the microbiology laboratory of the University of Ilorin Teaching were studied, in order to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. All the isolates were recovered from clinical samples and identified by their alpha-haemolytic reaction on sheep blood agar, bile solubility and their sensitivity to optochin. Susceptibility testing was carried out using the stokes-disc diffusion method. Majority of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (78.4%) were recovered from the cerebrospinal fluids, 18 (11.3%) from sputum, 14 (9%) from throat swab and 2 (1.3%) from eye swab. Eight three percent of the isolates were resistant to penicillin G and 12.7% were resistant to more than three antibiotics. The isolates were largely sensitive to the third generation cephalosporins and quinolones. The study has shown that penicillins are no longer useful for the treatment of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in this centre. The cephalosporins and quinolones however remained effective and are therefore recommended.

Keywords; Streptococcus pneumoniae, Susceptibility, Antimicrobial

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5(2): 172 – 176.