A systematic review of clinical characteristics, co-morbidities and outcomes of COVID-19 in children and adolescents

 

*1Adegboro, B., 2Musa-Booth, T. O., 3Mba, I. N., 4Ibrahim, R. R., 1Medugu, N.,

5Abayomi, S. A., and 6Babazhitsu, M.

 

Departments of 1Medical Microbiology/Immunology and

3Chemical Pathology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

21928, Woodlawn Drive, Woodlawn, Maryland 21207, USA

4Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

5Department of Medical Microbiology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

6Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: boazadegboro@gmail.com; boaz.adegboro@nileuniverity.edu.ng

Abstract:

Background: COVID-19 is a major global health challenge that has affected all age groups and gender, with over 5 million deaths reported worldwide to date. The objective of this study is to assess available information on COVID-19 in children and adolescents with respect to clinical characteristics, co-morbidities, and outcomes, and identify gaps in the literatures for appropriate actions.                   Continue reading “A systematic review of clinical characteristics, co-morbidities and outcomes of COVID-19 in children and adolescents”

Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants: a mini-review

1Musa-Booth, T. O., *2Adegboro, B., and 2Medugu, N.
11928 Woodlawn Drive, Woodlawn, Maryland 21207, USA

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: boazadegboro@gmail.com; boaz.adegboro@nileuniversity.edu.ng

Abstract:

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved over time with several mutations, especially on the spike protein, which has led to emergence of various variants. With the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 come new challenges in surveillance, effectiveness of preventive and treatment strategies, and outcome of the disease. Despite the lockdowns, mask mandates and other preventive measures put in place, in addition to over 10 million vaccine doses that have been administered globally as of February 2022, COVID-19 cases have risen to over 435 million and resulted in over 5.9 million deaths, largely as a result of the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants. To review the evolution of these variants, we searched different online database sources using keywords such as “source of SARS-CoV-2”, “SARS-CoV-2 origin”, “evolution of SARS-CoV-2”, “SARS-CoV-2 variants”, “variants of concern”, “variants of interest”, and “variants of high consequence”. This was to enable us give a good report about the various variants of SARS-CoV-2 that have emerged so far, and the public health challenges posed by them. Continue reading “Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants: a mini-review”

Predictive factors of clinical assays on hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 mortality during the first year of the pandemic: a meta-synthesis

*1,2Million, M., 1,2Dudouet, P., 1,2Chabriere, E., 1,3Cortaredona, S., 1,2Roussel, Y., 1,2Brouqui, P., and 1,2Raoult, D.

1IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France
2Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, Marseille, France
3Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Marseille, France
*Correspondence to: Prof. Matthieu Million. MEPHI, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France. E-mail: matthieumillion@gmail.com; Phone: + 33 (0) 4 13 73 24 01; Fax: + 33 (0) 4 13 73 24 02

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a violent debate about the efficacy of a repurposed drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and a new broad-spectrum antiviral (remdesivir) and about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. To understand conflicting results in the literature, we performed a meta-synthesis to determine whether intrinsic qualitative criteria within studies may predict apparent efficacy or ineffectiveness of HCQ and remdesivir. Continue reading “Predictive factors of clinical assays on hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 mortality during the first year of the pandemic: a meta-synthesis”

Pathologic changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a review

*1Babazhitsu, M., 2Adegoke, O. O., 3Abayomi, S. A., and 4Adegboro, B.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria 4Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja

*Correspondence to: babazhitsu.makun@udusok.edu.ng; +234 8032874925

Abstract:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters cells using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which are expressed by the respiratory tract endothelium, epithelial cells of the stomach, duodenum, ileum, rectum, cholangiocytes, and hepatocytes. Pathological examinations of these organs are not feasible method of diagnosis but can explain pathological changes, pathogenesis of the disease, and the cause of death in COVID-19 cases. In this review, we performed a literature search for COVID-19-related pathological changes seen during post-mortem examinations in different organs of the body including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, skin, heart and blood. Our findings showed that SARS-CoV-2 has damaging effects on many organs, probably due to the host immune responses to the presence of the virus. It is recommended that both antiviral and immunomodulatory agents should be considered in the management of COVID-19 patients for better prognosis, and clinical outcome. Continue reading “Pathologic changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a review”

A review of the possible prognostic values of biochemical changes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections

*1Adegboro, B., 2Babazhitsu, M., and 3Mba, N. I.

Departments of 1Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and 3Chemical Pathology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: boazadegboro@gmail.com; boaz.adegboro@nileuniversity.edu.ng

Abstract:
Because of high mortality and long-term hospital stay among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections, it is important to search for biochemical changes in different organs and systems that could be useful in diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19. We conducted a literature search of online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar for relevant materials on biochemical changes in SARS-COV-2 infections published between December 2019 and March 2021. The review shows that SARS-COV-2 uses the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for attachment and entry into host cells. These ACE2 are abundantly expressed by the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and moderately expressed by the epithelial cells of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, rectum, cholangiocytes, liver hepatocytes, pancreatic beta cells, and kidney tubular cells. This explains the systemic nature of SARS-COV-2 infection, and the high morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. Although, tests to assess biochemical changes are not specific enough for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, they may be useful for predicting outcome of COVID-19. This review highlights biochemical parameters that are significantly elevated or reduced in SARS-COV-2 infections, and which can be used as predictive factors of the severity and prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Continue reading “A review of the possible prognostic values of biochemical changes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections”

Emerging infectious disease preparedness and response in healthcare: perspectives from COVID-19 and the role of College-Learnt Microbiology

*1Tonui, J.,

2Chepkutto, W., and

3Rotich, J.

1Department of Biomedical Sciences-Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya

2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya

3Department of Preventive and Promotive Health, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

*Correspondence to: josephat@kabarak.ac.ke

Abstract:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in December 2019 in Wuhan City China where it is believed to have been transmitted to humans from an unknown animal species. The public health, social and economic impact of the pandemic world over is detrimental. Health care providers at the frontline in the fight against COVID-19 are at the greatest risk of infection and so far, many have been infected and some have already died from the disease. Thus, it is imperative that healthcare providers have adequate knowledge of infectious diseases and microbial pathogens to comprehend the scale of risk for better recognition and response. Microbiological concepts of infection prevention and control, hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are essential in slowing down the spread of the virus. COVID-19 has proven that infectious agents can emerge from any region in the world and can spread rapidly with ominous consequences to all humanity. This narrative review discusses the role of college-learnt microbiology in health care provider preparedness for emerging infectious diseases in light of the current pandemic. Continue reading “Emerging infectious disease preparedness and response in healthcare: perspectives from COVID-19 and the role of College-Learnt Microbiology”

A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin

*1Adegboro, B., 2Lawani, O. A., 3Oriaifo, S. E., and 4Abayomi, S. A.
Departments of

1Medical Microbiology & Immunology, and

3Clinical Pharmacology, Nile University, Abuja, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria *Correspondence to: boazadegboro@gmail.com

Abstract:
Ivermectin is an avermectin which is a group of pentacyclic sixteen-membered lactone (macrocyclic lactone disaccharide) derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. It is a semi-synthetic broad-spectrum anti-helminthic, anti-viral and anti-cancer agent. It has a wide safety margin with low adverse effects when it is used orally. It has, however, so far only been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a broad spectrum anti-parasitic agent. Because ivermectin also has broad activities as an anti-viral agent, we herein review its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities, as well as the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted on the drug. It is hoped that this work will pave way for ivermectin being seriously considered as an addition to the drugs available for the management of patients with COVID-19. Continue reading “A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin”

Clinical symptoms and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

*1Usman, S. O., 2Busari, I. I., 3Fagbemi, S., 2Adeniyi, M. M., 2Irabor, P., 4Usman, I. N.,
and 5Akintayo-Usman, N. O.

1APIN Public Health Initiatives, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
2Infectious Disease Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
3Ondo State Ministry of Health, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
4Department of Public Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
5Nurse Tutors Programme, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: senatorhopsy@yahoo.com

Abstract:
Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel strain of coronavirus, which is the cause of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ravaging many countries of the world. The objective of this study is to assess the symptomatology and case management outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a longitudinal study carried out on randomly selected patients with COVID-19, confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital, Akure, from March to July 2020. Clinical and outcome data obtained from the patients were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 software, and variables were compared using the Chi square (χ²) test and Odds ratio (OR).

Results: A total of 215 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were randomly recruited, with 103 males and 112 females (M:F ratio of 1:1.1), and mean age of 37.24 ± 16.83 years. The most common symptoms were shortness of breath (22.8%), cough (18.6%), fatigue (17.2%), runny nose (16.7%), fever (16.3%), and sneezing (14.0%). Mortality rate among the patients was 4.7% (10/215). Statistical analysis showed that fever [χ² = 8.75, OR 2.17 (95% CI: 0.29-16.63), p=0.003] and sneezing [χ²=11.35, OR 2.75 (95% CI: 0.34-18.27), p=0.001] were clinical presentations with significant impact on the final outcome of the patients.

Conclusion: This study showed that the most common symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients were shortness of breath, cough, running nose, fever and sneezing, which underscores the importance of monitoring of patients for these symptoms.

Keywords: COVID-19, symptoms, management, hospitalized, outcome, Nigeria
Received Mar 8, 2021; Revised Apr 24, 2021; Accepted Apr 26, 2021

Copyright 2021 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. S. S. Taiwo

Symptômes cliniques et résultats chez les patients hospitalisés COVID-19 dans l’État d’Ondo, dans le sud-ouest du Nigéria

*1Usman, S. O., 2Busari, I. I., 3Fagbemi, S., 2Adeniyi, M. M., 2Irabor, P., 4Usman, I. N., et 5Akintayo-Usman, N. O.

1Initiatives de santé publique 1APIN, Akure, État d’Ondo, Nigéria

2Hôpital des maladies infectieuses, Akure, État d’Ondo, Nigéria

3Ministère de la Santé de l’État de Ando, Akure, État d’Ondo, Nigéria

4Département de la santé publique, Université de technologie Ladoke Akintola, Ogbomoso, État d’Oyo, Nigéria

5Programme d’infirmières tuteurs, Hôpital universitaire, Ibadan, État d’Oyo, Nigéria

*Correspondance à: senatorhopsy@yahoo.com

Abstrait:

Contexte: Le coronavirus-2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS-CoV-2) est une nouvelle souche de coronavirus, qui est à l’origine de la pandémie actuelle de coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), ravageant de nombreux pays du monde. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer les résultats de la symptomatologie et de la prise en charge des cas de patients hospitalisés COVID-19 dans l’État d’Ondo, dans le sud-ouest du Nigéria.

Méthodologie: Il s’agissait d’une étude longitudinale réalisée sur des patients sélectionnés au hasard atteints de COVID-19, confirmée par réaction en chaîne par transcriptase-polymérase inverse en temps réel (rRT-PCR), admis à l’hôpital des maladies infectieuses d’Akure de mars à juillet 2020. Les données cliniques et les résultats obtenus des patients ont été analysés à l’aide du logiciel Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0, et les variables ont été comparées à l’aide du test du Chi carré (χ²) et du rapport de cotes (OR). Continue reading “Clinical symptoms and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria”

Applying lessons learnt from Ebola for effective COVID-19 response in Africa

*1Aiyenuro, A. E., 2Onyeani, C. O., and 2Uche, N. C.

 1Team Lead and Research Analyst, Research4Knowledge, Lagos, Nigeria                                                   

1Network officer, Loving Gaze IO, SHOPS Plus Tuberculosis USAID Project                                          

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

3Quality Assurance Officer, Loving Gaze IO, SHOPS Plus Tuberculosis USAID Project

*Correspondence to: aiyenuroademola@gmail.com; +2348138642956

 

Abstract:

 The Ebola virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission via direct contact with blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials contaminated with these fluids. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, attracting the notice of regional authorities and rapidly drawing global attention. In less than 4 months, COVID-19 spread through almost all countries and regions. The COVID-19 pandemic is wreaking havoc on the world economy, in addition to creating the current global public health crisis. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 28,616 cases of Ebola were detected, and 11,310 people died during the outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. As of 17th December 2020, COVID-19 has killed 1,658,062 people, and positive cases have topped 74 million globally. Africa has suffered several outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD); learning from the past is a good way to prepare for the future. We hope to highlight some of the lessons learnt from Africa’s response to previous epidemics that can help in the fight against the ravaging coronavirus pandemic.  Continue reading “Applying lessons learnt from Ebola for effective COVID-19 response in Africa”

Neglect of common infectious disease outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic: an impending crisis in Nigeria?

Soyemi, T.

Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence to: sogbengasoyemi16@gmail.com; +2348128388296

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are major challenges of healthcare system in Nigeria. The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID19) pandemic has disrupted many systems including healthcare at all levels by creating disparities in the treatment, prevention, resource allocation and control of diseases in Nigeria. Premised on the foundation of circulating news and fact-checking platforms, this paper provides empirical evidence on varying perceptions on COVID-19 pandemic and apparent neglect of other infectious diseases while giving a critical analysis and comparison between them. Continue reading “Neglect of common infectious disease outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic: an impending crisis in Nigeria?”