COVID-19 and Dengue co-infection in paediatric patients: An endemic in a pandemic

Pavani, S., Srinath, M., Sultana, W., Rani, V. S., *Mehreen, S. F., and Ravi, V.

Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad-500095, Telangana, India

*Correspondence to:; +91 8500499786

Authors have equal contribution to the study



Background: The clinical presentation and outcome of COVID-19 are likely to be complicated by co-infection with other endemic viruses such as Dengue. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 and Dengue viruses in paediatric patients from Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Continue reading “COVID-19 and Dengue co-infection in paediatric patients: An endemic in a pandemic”

Prevalence and risk factors of acute gastroenteritis caused by Rotavirus among children in tertiary hospitals, southeastern Nigeria

*1Igwe, D., 2Oshun, P., 2Osuagwu, C., 1Efunshile, A., and 2Oduyebo, O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine/Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, PMB 102, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2College of Medicine/Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, University of Lagos, Nigeria*Correspondence to:

Background: Diarrhea is a worldwide problem and rotavirus is the commonest viral etiologic agent. In Nigeria, diarrhea causes more than 315,000 deaths of preschool-age children annually. In Ebonyi State, it is among the leading causes of pediatric emergency visits and one of the major causes of infant morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus infection among under-five children in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state.

This was a cross-sectional study of 275 children under 5 years of age hospitalized for acute watery diarrhea, who were consecutively recruited into the study. Stool samples were collected from each child for rotavirus antigen detection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Socio-demographic information of each child and selected risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done on SPSS software version 20.0, and association of demographic characteristics and risk factors with rotavirus diarrhoea was measured using Chi-square test, odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval). Significant value was set at p < 0.05. Continue reading “Prevalence and risk factors of acute gastroenteritis caused by Rotavirus among children in tertiary hospitals, southeastern Nigeria”

Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women on antenatal visits: rapid tests or ELISA?

*1,2Fowotade, A., 2Adetunji, S. O., 2Amadi, E., 2Ishola, I. O., and 3Omoruyi, E. C.

1Clinical Virology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Institute of Child and Maternal Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to:


Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health challenge with over 360 million people infected worldwide, and is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) is the most important marker for HBV screening, and HBSAg rapid screening test methods are the most widely used compared with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nucleic acid testing methods. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the comparative efficacy of rapid test kits and ELISA for HBV screening among pregnant women on antenatal visits and to screen for other HBV serological markers among HBsAg positive patients.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study of 172 pregnant women who were recruited consecutively on their first antenatal visit at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between November 2018 and February 2019. All participants were screened for HBsAg using both rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) and ELISA techniques. HBsAg negative samples were further screened for anti-HBeAg/Ab, anti-HBcAg and anti-HBs by ELISA. Socio-demographic data of the participants were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire, and data were analyzed using EPI INFO 7.2 statistical software. Continue reading “Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women on antenatal visits: rapid tests or ELISA?”

Seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection of cattle in Setif, Algeria

*1Benseghir, H., 2Amara-Korba, A., 1Azzag, N., 1Hezil, D., and 1Ghalmi, F.

1Research Laboratory Management of Local Animal Resources, Higher National Veterinary School, El Alia, Oued Smar, 1615, Algiers, Algeria

2Leptospira unit, Pasteur Institute of Algeria, Rue 1 of Doctor LAVERAN, Hamma Anassers Algiers, Algeria

*Correspondence to:

Background: Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by Leptospira interrogans responsible for heavy loss both economically and in health, in humans and animals. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection in cattle in the state of Setif, northeastern Algeria.

Methodology: Between the period 2015 and 2019, a total of 48 randomly selected herds of cattle were investigated, and 406 sera from apparently healthy cattle were analyzed using an indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). In order to determine possible risk factors related to leptospirosis, a pre-validated questionnaire was administered to herd owners.

Results: The herd prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo was 31.25% (15/48, 95% CI 19.95–45.33) while the cattle prevalence was 5.42% (22/406, 95% CI 3.61–8.07). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the age of cattle between 3 and 6 years (OR = 9.25; p< 0.03), breeding herd size > 20 cows (OR = 13.65; p< 0.01), and semi-intensive management system (OR = 0.21; p< 0,02) were significantly associated with seropositivity to Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo.

Conclusion: We concluded from this study that Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo is circulating among cattle farms in the state of Setif, Algeria. Furthermore, we recommend more studies to be carried out to prove the infectivity and implementation good hygienic practices among cattle farms and people at risk.

Keywords: ELISA, herds, questionnaire, leptospirosis, prevalence, Algeria

Received Jan 27, 2020; Revised March 10, 2020; Accepted March 11, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Séroprévalence et facteurs de risque associés de l’infection à Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo des bovins à Sétif, Algérie

*1Benseghir, H., 2Amara-Korba, A., 1Azzag, N., 1Hezil, D., et 1Ghalmi, F. Continue reading “Seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection of cattle in Setif, Algeria”

Polymerase chain reaction versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among gynaecological patients in southwestern Nigeria

T.A. Ajani, C.G. Anaedobe, T.A. Oluwasola, M.A. Ajani, S.A. Fayemiwo, R.A. Bakare



Background:  Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), is the most common bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infection, a major cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and female infertility. Since C. trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic with higher prevalence in developing countries, highly sensitive and affordable methods are desirable for routine screening and diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of C. trachomatis-specific IgG antibody by ELISA as a screening tool for C. trachomatis infection, by comparing the performance of ELISA with the gold standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Method: In this cross sectional study, we enrolled 150 women attending infertility clinic at Ibadan between January and November, 2015. ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies specific to C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was performed on the blood samples using third generation indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and endocervical samples were analyzed for presence of C. trachomatisnucleic acid using PCR. Socio-demographic bio-data and gynaecological history were obtained with questionnaire; data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Overall, 58 (38.7%) were positive for C. trachomatis specific IgG antibody by ELISA and 11 (7.3%) for C. trachomatis nucleic acid by PCR. Using PCR as the gold standard, ELISA had a sensitivity of 81.8% specificity of 64.8%, positive predictive value of 15.5% negative predictive value of 97.8% and accuracy of 66%.

Conclusion: The high sensitivity of the ELISA indicates that over 80% of patients identified as being positive in the screened population are truly infected. Also, the negative predictive value approaches 100% amongst those screened out as being
negative. Thus its use as a screening tool for C. trachomatis infection is warranted particularly in developing countries where cheaper and easier to use alternatives to PCR are in dire need.

Keywords: C. trachomatis, infertility, polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, sexually transmitted infections

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Polymerase chain reaction versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among gynaecological patients in southwest

Transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood donors in Ibadan, Nigeria

AY Afolabi, A Abraham, EK Oladipo, AO Adefolarin, AH Fagbami



It is evident that proper screening procedures prior blood transfusion is a cost-effective approach for prevention and control of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Also, it has been documented that sub-standard test kits are mostly used in resource limited settings for transfusion related diagnosis. However, the role of such practice in epidemiology of transfusion transmissible viral infections in a tertiary health care facility would give an insight to the rates of blood transfusion associated viral transmission in the community at large. Therefore, the study was designed to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses among blood donors in a tertiary hospital where quality diagnostic procedures are considered prior recruitment of donors. Post ethical approval, counselled and consenting 507(M= 426; F=81) aged 19 to 68 years (Median age:39) potential blood donors were recruited and tested for HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV using commercial ELISA testkit in strict compliance with the manufacturer’sprocedures. Overall results show rates of 2.0%, 5.9% and 1.4% for HIV, HBsAg and HCV respectively. Also, highest prevalence rates were recorded among age group 26 to 35 years as 2.6%, 7.2% and 2.1% for HIV, HBV and HCV respectively. Furthermore, higher prevalences rates were noted among unmarried individuals as 2.6%, 6.8% and 2.1% for HIV, HBV and HCV respectively.

Key words: Transfusion Transmissible Infections, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Blood Donors, University College Hospital (UCH), ELISA.

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Transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood donors in Ibadan, Nigeria


MM Mya, RK Saxena, A Roy



The roles of causative factors responsible for prevalence of malaria in the village of Solana, India, were studied. Mosquitoes and larvae density in and around the area were measured by process of random sampling and counting their numbers under microscopy. Malaria in population of the village was diagnosed by standard ELISA method and malaria antibody capturing level were measured against three Plasmodium falciparumantigens. The effect of insecticides for the control of malaria was also evaluated. Results of study showed that more than two third of village human populations (75%) were suffering from malaria, with 67.14% being children below 14 years of age. Similarly vectors identification study showed Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi as the main source for infection transmission. Sporozoite positive rate estimated in Anopheles culicifacies was found to be 1.26%. Both vectors were resistant to DDT and Malathion insecticides. Antibody capturing by three different Plasmodium falciparum antigens study showed that glycophospholipid antigen (GPL) was able to capture and detect highest amount of malarial antibody followed by sonicated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) antigen and ring infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) i.e. 0.69±0.22, 0.60±0.22 and 0.59±0.23 respectively. Age specific antibody levels was found to gradually increase from lowest to highest age groups i.e. 0.29– 1.18 for GPL, 0.25-0.94 for RESA and 0.25-0.97 for Pf. The study showed that infants and children are highly prone to malaria attacks than the adult population, which may be as a result of low level of Plasmodium antibody in their circulation.

Key Words: Solana village, endemicity, malaria incidence, antibodies, ELISA, insecticides.

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 2-14