HIV status of individuals who underwent pre-employment medical screening at a federal tertiary health institution in southeast Nigeria

1Ehidiamhen, F. E., 2Agwu, U. M., *3Eze, G. O., 1Ogbata, S. E., 4Chukwu, C. G., 1Akujobi, C. N., and 5Nnoli, M. A,

1Department of Pathology, David Umahi Federal University Teaching Hospital, PMB 337, Uburu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, David Umahi Federal University Teaching Hospital, PMB 337, Uburu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical Sciences and Training, David Umahi Federal University Teaching Hospital, PMB 337, Uburu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

4Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, David Umahi Federal University Teaching Hospital, PMB 337, Uburu, Ebonyi State Nigeria 5Department of Pathology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: godsoneze46@gmail.com; +2348066656631; ORCID: //orcid.org/0000-0003-1776-1036

Abstract:
Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the host immune system, particularly the CD4 T cells. The host resistance to opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis, fungal infections, severe bacterial infections, and several malignancies is weakened as a result of destruction of these CD4 cells by HIV. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV among individuals who participated in pre-employment medical screening at David Umahi Federal University Teaching Hospital Uburu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, with the aim of connecting those who are HIV-positive to voluntary counseling and treatment programs. Continue reading “HIV status of individuals who underwent pre-employment medical screening at a federal tertiary health institution in southeast Nigeria”

Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV: A 10-year review of data from a tertiary health facility in northcentral Nigeria

*[1]Audu, E. S., [2]Bello, S. O., [3]Ablaku, A., [4]Audu, A. A., 5Bako, I. A., 5Mathew, M., and 6Anazodo, M. C.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

2Department of Paediatrics, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

3Pharmacy Unit, Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

4Department of Human Anatomy, Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

5Department of Community Medicine, Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

6Department of Community Medicine, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria *Correspondence to: estanamo@gmail.com; +2347083599740 ORCID: 0000-0002-3129-7754

Abstract:  

Background: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the use of short-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) following a single risk exposure to a potential source of HIV infection. If commenced within 72 hours following exposure, PEP has been reported to be very effective in preventing replication and spread of the virus and therefore prevent acquisition of infection. PEP is recommended for exposures occurring in both occupational and non-occupational settings. The objectives of this study are to review the profile of patients and determine the reasons for accessing PEP services in our facility with a view to recommending evidence-based solutions and ultimately contributing to achieving zero transmission of HIV.   Continue reading “Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV: A 10-year review of data from a tertiary health facility in northcentral Nigeria”

Prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in HIV-infected patients in Ilorin, Nigeria

*1Bale, M. I., 1Sinumvayo, J. P., 2Badmus, R. A., 3Babatunde, S. K., 4Aroyehun, A. B., and 1Adeyemo, R. O.

  1Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences,  University of Rwanda, Republic of Rwanda

2Department of Microbiology Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University,  Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Kola Daisi University, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, King’s College, Aberdeen, AB24 3FX, Scotland

*Correspondence to: muribaale@gmail.com; i.muritala@ur.ac.rw

Abstract:

 Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common type of infections worldwide, and this is usually preceded by asymptomatic significant bacteriuria (ASB). The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria responsible for UTI makes this entity of public challenge, which has been fueled by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study determined the prevalence of ASB and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from urine samples of selected HIV-infected patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. Continue reading “Prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in HIV-infected patients in Ilorin, Nigeria”

Awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection among female sex workers in Anambra State, south-eastern Nigeria

1Nwagbo, E. C., 2Ekwunife, O. I., 3Mmeremikwu, A. C., and *4Ojide, C. K.

1Department of Pharmacy, Medical Services, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmacy, Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria *Correspondence to: edomann2001@yahoo.com; +2348052534844

Abstract:

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective preventive measures against HIV infection but its success is strongly based on adherence, which in turn depends on willingness to use. This study is aimed at assessing the level of awareness and willingness to use PrEP to prevent HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Anambra State, Nigeria, and to identify factors that influence willingness to use PrEP. Continue reading “Awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection among female sex workers in Anambra State, south-eastern Nigeria”

Comparative gender analysis of the seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus among HIV-infected individuals receiving care at Offa, north-central Nigeria

*1Udeze, A. O., and 2Odebisi-Omokanye, M.

1Virology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

2Infectious Disease, Environmental Health and Toxicity Research Group, Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria            *Correspondence to: udeze.ao@unilorin.edu.ng; austok90@yahoo.com; +2348135586003

ORCiD: 0000-0002-5492-4925

Abstract:

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections are common and contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. This study was conducted to determine the level of exposure, compare the gender distribution pattern and correlate with CD4 count, history of chicken pox and demographics among HIV patients.

Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 273 randomly selected HIV-positive patients (93 males and 180 females) receiving care and management at the General Hospital Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria, between September 2019 and March 2020, after obtaining informed consent. Sera were separated from the blood samples and tested for the presence of VZV-specific IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Continue reading “Comparative gender analysis of the seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus among HIV-infected individuals receiving care at Offa, north-central Nigeria”

Quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS attending Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria

[1]Adewuyi, B. T., and *[2],3Adewuyi, G. M.  

1Department of Family Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria 3Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: gbolawuyi@yahoo.com

 Abstract:

 Background: With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy of HIV-infected persons had increased and the disease is now managed as a chronic one, but the quality of life (QOL) of the patients is now a concern. Social support enhances QOL of patients with chronic illnesses. However, no study has been done to determine the QOL of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in our environment. This study therefore assessed the QOL of PLWHA attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Edo State of Nigeria

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Two hundred and thirty PLWHA attending the ART clinic of ISTH, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria, were systematically selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was interviewer-administered to collect data on sociodemographic and clinical profiles of selected participants, and the WHOQOL-HIV BREF questionnaire was used to collect data the QOL of each participant. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS version 20.0. Continue reading “Quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS attending Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria”

ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase co-production in multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria from HIV-infected patients in southwestern Nigeria

*Adeyemi, F. M., and Akinde, S. B.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria *Correspondence to: folasade.adeyemi@uniosun.edu.ng; +234 803 494 0747

Abstract:
Background: The rising global emergence of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) producing β-lactam hydrolysing enzymes in clinical infections constitutes a growing public health threat. This study investigated the occurrence of co-production of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among GNB isolated from HIV-infected patients in two tertiary healthcare facilities in southwest Nigeria. Continue reading “ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase co-production in multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria from HIV-infected patients in southwestern Nigeria”

Long term outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Nigerians and those co-infected with hepatitis B and C viruses

*1Okwuraiwe, A. P., 1Audu, R. A., 1Ige, F. A., 1Salu, O. B., 1Onwuamah, C. K., & 2Musa, A. Z.

1Centre for Human Virology and Genomics, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria 2Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria *Correspondence to: azukaokwu@yahoo.com; apokwuraiwe@nimr.gov.ng; +2347039303050

Abstract:
Background: HIV co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common, largely due to shared routes of transmission, but paucity of data exists for long term treatment outcomes of HIV infected patients, and those co-infected with HBV and HCV despite the high burden in Nigeria. The aim of study was to describe the long-term treatment outcomes in HIV infected Nigerians and to assess the effect of HBV and HCV co-infections on long-term response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Continue reading “Long term outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Nigerians and those co-infected with hepatitis B and C viruses”

Positivity yield of HIV index testing services from selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria

Emeh, A., *Usman, S. O., Adebanjo, A. M., Ogboghodo, E., Akinbinu, B., Suraju, A., Udechukwu, C., Ale, J., Ariyo, A., Owolagba, F. E., Jolayemi, T., and Okonkwo, P.

APIN Public Health Initiatives, Abuja, Nigeria *Correspondence to: senatorhopsy@yahoo.com

Abstract: Background: Index testing is a voluntary process whereby HIV seropositive clients are counselled and, after obtaining consent, their sexual and needle sharing partners are offered HIV testing services. Index testing has been associated with high HIV positivity yield. The aim of this study is to determine the positivity yield and identify factors influencing the yield from index testing strategy in selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. Continue reading “Positivity yield of HIV index testing services from selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria”

Cytomegalovirus co-infection with HIV in children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Abuja, Nigeria

Cytomegalovirus co-infection with HIV in children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Abuja, Nigeria

1*Okechukwu, A. A., and 2Thairu, Y.
1Deparment of Paediatrics, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria
Correspondence to: nebokest@yahoo.com; +2348036719906

Abstract:
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to accelerate HIV disease progression. It has the potential of being a killer disease or a silent lifetime companion in HIV patients. There is dearth of information on CMV prevalence among HIV infected children and adolescents in our environment. We therefore conducted this study to determine its sero-prevalence, and risk factors for co-infection among HIV infected children and adolescents on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our center.
Method: A descriptive cross sectional study of HIV-infected children and adolescents aged 2 months to 18 years on HAART was conducted over a 6 month period between October 2017 and March 2018 in our health facility. Blood samples of subjects were screened for CMV IgM using commercial test kits. Biodata of subjects, CD4 cell count, and viral load were collected into a designed proforma, and statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 22.0.
Result: A total of 161 HIV-infected children and adolescents were recruited, 103 (64.0%) were males, 83 (51.6%) were between the ages of 5 and <10 years, 113 (70.2%) were from lower socio-economic class, and 138 (85.7%) were on 1st line HAART. Of the 17 (10.6%) subjects positive for CMV IgM, 3 (17.6%) were less than 5 years old, 11 (64.7%) were between the ages of 5-10 years, and none was older than 15 years. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in the mean age, weight, length/height, and systolic blood pressure between CMV IgM positive and negative patients (p<0.05), but no significant difference in gender, socioeconomic class, types of antiretroviral drugs, CD4 cell count, and viral load (p>0.05). Multivariate analysis however did not show any significant difference in age, weight, length/height, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The prevalence of active CMV infections among HIV infected children and adolescents on HAART in our centre is high. Low CD4 cell count and high viral load were not associated with active CMV disease, and no risk factor for co-infection was also identified. Identifying those with primary/active infection will be necessary for possible treatment with anti-herpes drugs before development of reactivated CMV disease.

Keywords: CMV, HIV, co-infection, anti-retroviral,  children, adolescents

Received June 27, 2019; Revised October 10, 2019; Accepted October 12, 2019

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License (//creativecommmons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Co-infection par le cytomégalovirus et le VIH chez des enfants et des adolescents sous traitement antirétroviral à Abuja, au Nigéria

1*Okechukwu, A. A., et 2Thairu, Y.
1Département de pédiatrie, Hôpital universitaire de Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigéria 2Département de microbiologie, hôpital universitaire de Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigéria Correspondance à: nebokest@yahoo.com; +2348036719906

Abstrait:

Contexte: On sait que la co-infection par le cytomégalovirus (CMV) et le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) accélère la progression de la maladie. Il a le potentiel d’être une maladie mortelle ou un compagnon
silencieux à vie chez les patients VIH. Il existe peu d’informations sur la prévalence du CMV chez les enfants et les adolescents infectés par le VIH dans notre environnement. Nous avons donc mené cette étude pour déterminer sa séroprévalence et les facteurs de risque de co-infection chez les enfants et les adolescents infectés par le VIH sous traitement antirétroviral hautement actif (HAART) dans notre centre. Méthode: Une étude transversale descriptive des enfants et adolescents infectés par le VIH et âgés de 2 mois à 18 ans sous multithérapie a été menée sur une période de 6 mois entre octobre 2017 et mars 2018 dans notre établissement de santé. Des échantillons de sang de sujets ont été testés pour l’IgM de CMV en utilisant des kits de test commerciaux. Les données biologiques des sujets, le nombre de cellules CD4 et la charge virale ont été recueillis dans un formulaire conçu à cet effet et une analyse statistique a été réalisée avec SPSS version 22.0. Résultat: 161 enfants et adolescents infectés par le VIH ont été recrutés, dont 103 (64,0%) étaient des hommes, 83 (51,6%) étaient âgés de 5 à moins de 10 ans, 113 (70,2%) étaient issus de milieux socio-économiques inférieurs. et 138 (85,7%) suivaient la multithérapie de première ligne. Sur les 17 (10,6%) sujets positifs pour l’IgM du CMV, 3 (17,6%) avaient moins de 5 ans, 11 (64,7%) étaient âgés de 5 à 10 ans et aucun n’avait plus de 15 ans. Une analyse univariée a montré des différences significatives dans l’âge moyen, le poids, la taille / taille et la pression artérielle systolique entre les patients positifs et négatifs pour IgM anti-CMV (p<0,05), mais aucune différence significative entre le sexe, la classe socio-économique, les types de médicaments antirétroviraux et les cellules CD4 nombre et charge virale (p>0,05). L’analyse multivariée n’a cependant montré aucune différence significative d’âge, de poids, de taille / taille et de pression artérielle systolique. Conclusion: La prévalence des infections à CMV actives chez les enfants et les adolescents infectés par le VIH sous HAART dans notre centre est élevée. Un faible nombre de cellules CD4 et une charge virale élevée n’étaient pas associés à la maladie à CMV active et aucun facteur de risque de co-infection n’a également été identifié. Identifier les personnes présentant une infection primaire / active sera nécessaire pour un traitement éventuel avec des médicaments anti-herpès avant le développement d’une maladie à CMV réactivée.

Mots-clés: CMV, HIV, co-infection, anti-rétroviral, Enfants, les adolescents

CMV and HIV co-infection in children Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2020; 21 (1): 36 – 44

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Cytomegalovirus co-infection with HIV in children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Abuja, Nigeria