A review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines and economic impact of human monkeypox (Mpox) outbreaks

1Musa-Booth, T. O., 2Medugu, N., *2Adegboro, B., and 3Babazhitsu, M.

11928 Woodlawn Drive, Woodlawn, Maryland 21207, United States of America

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: boazadegboro@gmail.com; boaz.adegboro@nileuniversity.edu.ng


The current monkeypox outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern and is coming in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic infection caused by monkeypox virus, an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae that also contain smallpox, cowpox, Orf, and vaccinia viruses. Online databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched to obtain relevant publications on the epidemiology, treatment, vaccines and the economic impacts of the current monkeypox (Mpox) outbreak. Continue reading “A review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines and economic impact of human monkeypox (Mpox) outbreaks”

Emergence of nosocomial-acquired extensively drug-resistant  and pandrug-resistant Enterobacterales in a teaching hospital in Kuwait

[1]Chadha, A., 1,2Jamal, W., and *3Rotimi, V. O.

Departments of Microbiology, 1Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Health Sciences Center, Jabriya, Kuwait                      3Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Nigeria *Correspondence to: bunmivr@yahoo.com


 Background: The emergence and high ascendancy of infections caused by extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) Enterobacterales isolates is a serious clinical and public health challenge. Isolation of PDR Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in clinical setting is very rare and rarer is the infection caused by XDR GNB. Apart from restricted therapeutic options, these infections are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Urgent studies to re-evaluate existing therapeutic options and research into new antibiotic molecules are desperately needed. The objectives of this study are to report the emergence of rarely encountered multidrug-resistant (MDR), difficult-to-threat, CRE infections in our hospital and investigate their molecular epidemiology.

Methodology: This was a retrospective observational analysis of six patients with severe infections caused by XDR and PDR Enterobacterales isolates at Mubarak AL Kabeer Teaching Hospital, Jabriya, Kuwait, over a period of one and half years. The mechanisms of resistance in these isolates were then prospectively investigated by molecular characterization and genomic studies. Continue reading “Emergence of nosocomial-acquired extensively drug-resistant  and pandrug-resistant Enterobacterales in a teaching hospital in Kuwait”

Paediatric malaria: a ten-year retrospective study at the national hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

IC Peletiri, JO Ajobiewe, NKO Ibecheozor



A ten year study of malaria amongst paediatric patients was carried out in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, West Africa from 2000 to 2010. Giemsa staining methodology was used. Of the 24 289 blood samples analyzed (comprising of 13 435 male children and 10 854 female children), 8668 (35·7%) were positive for malaria parasites. 267 (3·1%) had parasite density of > 5000 parasites/Zl of blood; 382 (4·4%) had between 500 – 5000 parasites/Zl of blood; 1262 (14·6%) had between 50 – 500 parasites/Zl of blood; while 6757 (77·9%) had between 5 – 50 parasites/Zl of blood. The 11-15 years age group had the highest prevalence of 40·6%, while neonates (<1 – 28 days), 1 month – 5 years, and 6 – 10 years age groups recorded 27·2%, 34.5% and 36·5% respectively. Of the 13 435 male children, 4845 (36·1%) had positive malaria result as against 35·2% (3823) of positive cases recorded among the 10854 female children. There is need to enhance parasitological diagnosis by way of providing diagnostic tolls at all levels of health care – primary (rural settings), secondary and tertiary. There are negative implications associated with the continued use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (M-RDTs) methodologies which includes underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis of malaria and mismanagement of non-malarial fever, which wastes limited resources, erodes confidence in the health care system, and contributes to drug resistance. Finally, appropriate antimalarial drugs for treatment should be given free to all malaria positive children.

Keywords: Malaria, paediatric patients, parasite density, prevalence, laboratory diagnosis, treatment.

Download full journal in PDF below

Microbial status of smoked fish, scombia scombia sold in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria


AO George, OOM Daramola



Non-occurrence of Pityriasis versicolor (PV) in spouses of individuals with this superficial fungal infection despite several years of cohabitation suggests that heredity might play an important role in those affected. Forty subjects who were married were studied in two phases. The first phase involved using a detailed structured format to obtain information on the presence of PV in subjects, their spouses and siblings. In the second phase the family of an index case was studied over a 2-year period from a clinical and mycological aspect. Seventy percent of subjects interviewed in the first phase had at least one family member with PV. In the second phase, 4 other siblings of the index case studied all had PV. Of the 3 that were married (index case inclusive), 2 had PV but none of their spouses had. This study supports the role of heredity in individuals with PV.

Keywords: Pityriasis versicolor, Hereditary, Treatment

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 139-147


E.J. Otive-Igbuzor



The emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) defined as combined resistance to the two most effective anti-tuberculosis drugs, rifampicin and isoniazid, threatens to create a public health hazard of unprecedented proportion. The fact that MDR-TR is more difficult and expensive to cure creates the need for prompt diagnosis. Conventionally, the proportion method on Lowenstein Jensen (L J) medium is used in most developing countries as the ‘gold standard’ in the drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and it takes 3-4 weeks to give results from an MTB culture. The use of phage as a diagnostic is fast gaining ground today. It involves targeting viable MTB cells from culture with a specific mycobacteriophage. After a one-hour incubation, it is treated with an antivirus to destroy the phages that are not protected with the bacilli. Upon addition of cells of growing, non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis (sensor cells), progeny phage from the MTB cells infect the sensor cells, thus amplifying the effect of the phage. When plated in an agar medium overnight, plaques occur in the cell lawn indicating the presence of viable MTB in an original sample. A comparison is made between the number of plaques produced in a drug-free control and a sample incubated in the presence of the drug. While the presence of plaques beyond a cut-of point indicates drug resistance, the absence of plaques indicates that the drug destroyed MTB cells. Overall accuracy from several trials so far conducted is put at 97-98% compared with the ‘gold standard’. With the phage amplification method, antituberculosis drug susceptibility results are obtained from MTB culture within 48 hours as opposed to the L J proportion method, which gives resulted in 3 to 4 weeks. Also, phage, as a diagnostic, is much more applicable in Nigeria laboratories than newer, rapid methods which requires specially dedicated instrumentation and are therefore very expensive. Phage amplification technology requires no special equipment and the results can be read visually.

Key words: Tuberculosis, drug susceptibility, phage, treatment, FASTPlaque-TB, rifampicin

(Af J Clinical & Exp Microbiology: 2003 4(2): 67-78)