Epidemiology of Dengue in patients with febrile syndrome at Saint Camille Hospital, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from 2020 to 2021

1,2,3Bello, S. O. T., 4Houkpevi, A., 4Zackari, S., 1,3Tapsoba, A. S. A., *1,3,5Zoure, A. A., 6Ilboudo, P. D., 1,3Ouattara, A. K., 1Traore, L., 3Belemgnegre, M., 1,3,4Zohoncon, T. M.,  2,5Diabate, A., and 1,3,4Simpore, J.

1Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetics (CERBA/LABIOGENE), UFR/SVT, Joseph KI-ZERBO University, BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso

2African Center of Excellence in Biotechnological Innovations for the Elimination of Vector-borne Diseases

(CEA/ITECH-MTV), Nazi BONI University 01BP, 1091 Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso

3Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO), 01 BP 444 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso

4Faculty of Health Sciences, Saint Thomas Aquinas University (USTA), 06 BP 10212, Ouagadougou 06, Burkina Faso

5Institute for Research in Health Sciences (IRSS/CNRST)/Muraz Center, BP 390, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

6University of Fada N’Gourma, Fada N’Gourma, Burkina Faso

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; Tel: 00 226 50 34 48 01; //orcid.org/000000029423024X

 

Abstract:

Background: Dengue is still a public health problem in tropical countries. This disease, which had almost disappeared in some areas of the world, has become re-emergent in certain parts of the world including Africa. The aim of this study is to determine the seroprevalence and evolution of Dengue virus (DENV) infection from 2020 to 2021 at the Hospital Saint Camille de Ouagadougou (HOSCO), Burkina Faso.

Methodology: This was a descriptive analytical study of patients seen in general practice with febrile syndrome referred for serological diagnosis of Dengue at the HOSCO laboratory over a period of 2 years (January 1, 2020 – December 31, 2021). The “Dengue Duo (AgNS1/IgM/IgG)” kit from SD Bioline was used for the rapid diagnosis through the detection of NS1 antigen and IgM/IgG antibodies in plasma. Data were analysed with SPSS version 20.0 software. Association between demographic data and prevalence of DENV infection was determined by Chi square test and odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval).  P value less than 0.05 was considered statistical significance.

Results: A total of 2957 patients aged 0-94 years were referred for serological diagnosis of DENV infection at the HOSCO laboratory over the period 2020-2021, comprising 56.3% females and 43.7% males. The overall prevalence of acute DENV infection (NS1Ag positive) was 5.4% (159/2957), with 2.4% (41/1700) in 2020 and 9.4% (118/1257) in 2021 (OR=4.192, 95% CI=2.915-6.028, p<0.0001). The prevalence of acute DENV infection of 7.0% (91/1292) in the males was significantly higher than 4.1% (68/1665) in the females (OR=1.779, 95% CI=1.288-2.458, p=0.0005), and also significantly higher in age groups 20-29 years (7.6%), 10-19 years (6.9%) and 40-49 years (5.8%) than other age groups (X2=14.928, p=0.0107). The overall prevalence of DENV IgM and IgG antibodies was 3.2% and 37.3% respectively. The prevalence of DENV IgG antibodies was significantly higher in males (44.0%) than females (32.1%) (OR=1.667, 95%CI=1.434-1.938, p<0.0001) and in age groups 30-39 (43.4%), 40-49 (44.0%) and >50 years (49.3%) than other age groups (X2=121.0, p<0.0001), indicating that past exposure to DENV infection is higher among males and older age groups. The peak of DENV infection was between October and November with 84.3% (134/159) of NS1Ag positivity occurring during this period.

Conclusion: The present study reports a high prevalence of acute Dengue virus infection in patients from October to November. To eradicate Dengue which has become a tropical silent epidemic, interventions such as vector control, availability of and accessibility to diagnostic tests, and good therapeutic management are of great importance.

 Keywords: Epidemiology. Dengue, NS1Ag, Burkina Faso

Epidemiology of Dengue in patients with febrile syndrome at Saint Camille Hospital, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from 2020 to 2021