Prevalence and risk factors associated with canine dermatophytoses among dogs in Kwara and Osun States, Nigeria

1Adesiji, Y. O., 2Oluwayelu, D. O., and 3Aiyedun, J. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria              2Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria  3Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

*Correspondence to:


Background: Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is a zoonotic fungal skin infection caused predominantly by Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton spp. It is highly transmissible and, while normally self-limiting, could be problematic due to its potential to cause disease in certain human populations. The occurrence and associated risk factors of dermatophytoses in dogs presented at three veterinary clinics in Osogbo, and Ilorin, Nigeria between July and November 2019 were investigated in this study.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 325 dogs with lesions suggestive of dermato- phytosis, selected by simple random sampling from three veterinary clinics in Osogbo and Ilorin, purposively selected for the study due to high patronage of the veterinary hospitals by dog owners. Using conventional mycological sampling techniques, plucked hairs and skin scrapings were obtained the dogs. The samples were emulsified in 10% potassium hydroxide, examined microscopically for fungal elements and cultured using standard mycological procedures. Information on dog demographic characteristics and risk factors for dermatophytosis were collected using structured questionnaire. The association between risk factors and demographic variables with the occurrence of dermatophytoses was determined using Chi-square test (with Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Positive cultures for dermatophytes were obtained from samples of 48 (14.8%) dogs with M. canis 37.5% (18/48), M. gypseum 27.0% (13/48) and T. mentagrophytes 8.3% (4/48). Other fungi identified were Aspergillus flavus 12.5% (6/48) and Malassezia canis 12.5% (6/48). The age distribution of positive dogs were < 1 year (50.0%, n=24), 1-3 years (29.2%, n=14) and > 3 years (20.8%, n=10), while the risk factors associated with dermatophytosis included sex of dogs (p=0.0428), history of dermatophytosis (p<0.0001), clinical presentation (p<0.0001) and lesion type, especially kerion and pustular lesions (p=0.0297).

Conclusion: These findings established the occurrence of dermatophytosis in dogs kept for companionship (i. e., pets), security and breeding purposes in the two States in Nigeria. Our findings underscore the need for routine mycological investigations in dogs to facilitate early detection of cases and prompt institution of treatment interventions, thereby preventing zoonotic transmission of dermatophytes to their owners, handlers and veterinarians.

Keywords: Dermatophytosis, ringworm, dogs, risk factors

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Prevalence and risk factors associated with canine dermatophytoses among dogs in Kwara and Osun States, Nigeria