Mobile phones of hospital workers: a potential reservoir for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria

*[1]Bissong, M. E. A., and [2]Moukou, M.

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bamenda, P. O. Box 39, Bambili, Cameroon

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Bamenda, P. O. Box 39, Bambili, Cameroon *Correspondence to: mabissong@yahoo.com; +237675301641

Abstract:

Background: Mobile phones are increasingly associated with the transmission of pathogenic microbial agents. In the clinical setting where there is usually high exposure to pathogens, these devices may serve as vehicles for the transmission/spread of pathogens. This study determined the prevalence of bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health workers and the predisposing factors, in order to ascertain the risk of transmission of pathogenic bacteria through mobile phones. Continue reading “Mobile phones of hospital workers: a potential reservoir for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria”

Sero-prevalence of and risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infections among individuals with peptic ulcer in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria during 2020-2021

*1Okoroiwu, G. I. A., 2Okoroiwu, I. L., 1Ubosi, N. I., and 3Sani, N. M.

 

1Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria

 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Kano State University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: okoroiwugia@yahoo.com; 08036677539

 

Abstract:

 

Background: Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative agent of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, presently affects approximately one half of the world population. This study was conducted to assess the epidemiology and risk factors for acquisition of H. pylori among individuals with and without peptic ulcer symptoms in Owerri, Nigeria, in order to provide baseline data and create awareness for effective management and prevention of infection caused by this pathogen. Continue reading “Sero-prevalence of and risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infections among individuals with peptic ulcer in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria during 2020-2021”

Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamaseproducing Gram-negative bacterial infections in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital, southwest Nigeria

*1Adeyemo, A. T., 2Adeyemo, A. T., 3Odetoyin, B. W., and 2,3Onipede, A. O.
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Uniosun Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals
Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: adeyemoat@gmail.com; +2347031287078

Abstract:
Background: Clinical infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria constitute great burden to healthcare delivery with these resistant pathogens contributing largely to the magnitude and spread of antimicrobial resistance globally. Hence, knowledge of the risk factors for acquisition of infection caused by ESBL-producing bacteria is crucial to instituting prompt and appropriate treatment as well as prevention and control measures. This study investigated the risk factors associated with the prevalence of ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections among hospitalized patients in Uniosun Teaching Hospital (UTH), Osogbo, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 359 hospitalized patients with clinical infections from whose clinical samples we isolated non-duplicate GNB were consecutively recruited. GNB were isolated following aerobic cultures of
appropriate clinical samples and MicrobactTMGNB 24E kit was used for species identification. All isolates were screened for ESBL production by the combination disc method. Relevant clinical and demographic information
was obtained using a designed data collection form, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated risk factors. Continue reading “Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamaseproducing Gram-negative bacterial infections in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital, southwest Nigeria”

Persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection among cohort of women in Awka, Nigeria

*1Ezebialu, C. U., 2Ezebialu, I. U., and 2Ezenyeaku, C. C.

1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Awka, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: nenyeume@yahoo.com; 08066528090

Abstract:

Background: Many women are known to contract human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in their lifetime but only a few develop cervical cancer. One of the major factors that contribute to development of cervical cancer is HPV persistence. Several other factors including viral load have been implicated in cervical cancer development. This work therefore intends to investigate the persistence of cervical HPV infection among cohort of women in Awka, Nigeria.

Methodology: A cohort of 58 women with normal Papanicolaou (Pap) test but positive HPV DNA selected from a population of 410 women at baseline were followed up over a period of 6 months from April to October 2015. Cervical specimens collected were subjected to HPV DNA test and viral quantification using TaqMan Real Time PCR and cervical cytology. Risk factors were obtained using semi structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Variables were analysed using descriptive statistics and T-test on IBM SPSS statistics version 21.0 and EPI INFOTM 7.0

Results: At the 6-month follow up, cervical HPV infection persisted in 29 women, representing 50% of the women followed up. Among the 29 women, 7 (24.1%) developed abnormal Pap smear (Low grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion). Factors significantly associated with persistence at bivariate analysis of HPV include previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) (p=0.005), HIV positivity (p=0.04), HIV positivity but no anti-retroviral drugs (p=0.014), HPV 16 infection (p<0.0001) and age less than 40 years (p<0.0001). At multinomial logistic regression, only age above 17 years at first sexual intercourse (p=0.003, CI=0.012-0.392) and multiple lifetime sexual partners (p=0.021, CI=0.20-0.726) were statistically significant.

Conclusion: High risk HPV infection, in addition to other factors peculiar to an individual may influence HPV persistence

Key words: cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, persistence, cytology, risk factors, infection

Received Sept 28, 2020; Revised Jan 14, 2021; Accepted Mar 27, 2021
Copyright 2021 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. S. S. Taiwo

Persistance de l’infection cervicale par le papillomavirus humain parmi une cohorte de femmes à Awka, Nigéria

*1Ezebialu, C.U., 2Ezebialu, I.U., et 2Ezenyeaku, C. C.

1Département de microbiologie appliquée et brassage, Université Nnamdi Azikiwe, Awka, Nigéria

2Département d’obstétrique et de gynécologie, Collège de médecine, Université Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Awka, Nigéria

*Correspondance à: nenyeume@yahoo.com; 08066528090

Abstrait:

Contexte: De nombreuses femmes sont connues pour contracter une infection au virus du papillome humain (VPH) au cours de leur vie, mais seules quelques-unes développent un cancer du col de l’utérus. L’un des principaux facteurs qui contribuent au développement du cancer du col de l’utérus est la persistance du VPH. Plusieurs autres facteurs, y compris la charge virale, ont été impliqués dans le développement du cancer du col de l’utérus. Ce travail vise donc à étudier la persistance de l’infection cervicale au VPH parmi la cohorte de femmes à Awka, au Nigeria.

Méthodologie: Une cohorte de 58 femmes avec un test de Papanicolaou (Pap) normal mais un ADN HPV positif sélectionné parmi une population de 410 femmes au départ ont été suivis sur une période de 6 mois d’avril à octobre 2015. Les échantillons cervicaux collectés ont été soumis à l’ADN HPV. test et quantification virale à l’aide de la PCR en temps réel TaqMan et de la cytologie cervicale. Les facteurs de risque ont été obtenus à l’aide de questionnaires semi-structurés administrés par les intervieweurs. Les variables ont été analysées à l’aide de statistiques descriptives et d’un test T sur IBM SPSS statistics version 21.0 et EPI INFOTM 7.0

Résultats: Au suivi de 6 mois, l’infection cervicale au VPH persistait chez 29 femmes, soit 50% des femmes suivies. Parmi les 29 femmes, 7 (24,1%) ont développé un test Pap anormal (lésion squameuse intraépithéliale de bas grade). Les facteurs significativement associés à la persistance lors de l’analyse bivariée du VPH comprennent les antécédents d’infection sexuellement transmissible (IST) (p=0,005), la positivité au VIH (p=0,04), la positivité au VIH mais pas d’antirétroviraux (p=0,014), l’infection au VPH 16 (p<0,0001) et moins de 40 ans (p<0,0001). Lors de la régression logistique multinomiale, seuls les âges supérieurs à 17 ans lors du premier rapport sexuel (p=0,003, IC=0,012-0,392) et les multiples partenaires sexuels à vie (p=0,021, IC=0,20-0,726) étaient statistiquement significatifs.

Conclusion: Une infection au VPH à haut risque, en plus d’autres facteurs propres à un individu, peut influencer la persistance du VPH

Mots clés: cancer du col de l’utérus, papillomavirus humain, persistance, cytologie, facteurs de risque, infection

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Persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection among cohort of women in Awka, Nigeria

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon

*1Nguemaïm, N. F., 2Takang, W. A., 2Dobgima, W. P., 2Guebidiang, B. M., 3Foumane, P., and 4Kamga, F. H. L.

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

2Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon

4Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

*Correspondence to: ngflorema@yahoo.fr

Abstract:

Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, coccidian parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. This infection, if acquired during pregnancy may result in severe damage. It affects a third of the world’s population. In many developing countries, its prevalence is unknown, and data concerning its seroprevalence among pregnant women is scarce in our study area. The objective of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) at the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. The results obtained will be useful in giving an estimate of the prevalence among pregnant women thus informing policy on preventive measures.

Methodology: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of pregnant women recruited between January and April 2018 using systematic random sampling technique. Socio-demographic data of participants and predisposing factors to toxoplasmosis were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire administered to them. Five milliliters of blood were collected and the serum screened for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii using the cassette and buffer immunochromatographic method. The positive IgG cases were tested further by ELISA technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Associations between variables were tested by Chi square and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon”

Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria

1Anagha, L. I., 2Inegbenosun, C. U., and *3Inegbenosun, H.

1Department of Animal Enivronmental Biology, University of Benin,Benin City, Nigeria

2Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Periodontics, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: inegbenosun190@gmail.com

Abstract:

Background: Intestinal helminthic infections are generally common in children accounting for the largest disability adjusted life years (DALYs) of all the parasitic agents. In this study, we determined the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among secondary school students in a semi-urban community in Edo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study of 489 students from four secondary schools in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria was conducted between December 2018 and July 2019. The schools were selected by stratified random sampling and all eligible students in each school were enrolled. Stool samples were collected from each student into sterile universal bottle and direct wet mount as well as formol-ether concentrated samples were examined under compound light microscope at the Animal and Environmental Biology Laboratory of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was administered to collect data on socio-demographic and potential risk factors for helminthic infection. Data were analysed with SPSS version 22.0 and associations between variables compared using Chi square or Fischer exact test, with p<0.05 as significant value. Continue reading “Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria”

Fungal neonatal and infantile sepsis in Egypt: risk factors and identification of fungal isolates

1*Ahmed, S. H., 2Mokhtar, E. M., 3El-Kholy, I. M., 4El Essawy, A. K., 1El-Din, A. A., and 1Shetaia, Y. M.
1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt 2Microbiology Department, Abou Al-azayem Hospital, Cairo, Egypt 3Clinical Pathology Department, Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt 4Microbiology Department, Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital, Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt, *Correspondence to: sara_saifelnasr@hotmail.com; 00971563993304

Abstract:

Background: Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are opportunistic infections associated with significant mortality in paediatric patients, especially in those with compromised immune system and neonates with very low birth weight (VLBW). The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence, clinical features and fungi isolates of neonatal sepsis in three hospitals in Egypt. Methodology: The study is a cross sectional survey of 176 neonates with clinical sepsis admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of the three hospitals over a period of one year (February 2015 to January 2016). A minimum of two blood samples (collected within 24 hours) from each neonate were cultured for bacteria in automated BacT/AlerT and conventional culture bottles, while Saboraud-Brain Heart Infusion broth was inoculated for fungi culture. Positive growths from the broth were sub-cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) plates for aerobic incubation at 25oC and 37oC for 2 weeks. Identification of fungi colonies on SDA was by conventional morphology and confirmation on chromogenic agar media. Phylogenetic analysis of representative fungi isolates was done by partial nucleotide sequencing of D1-D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene.
Results: Of the 176 neonates, blood culture was positive for pathogens in 55 (31.3 %) samples and fungi were isolated in 26 (14.8 %); yeast (25) and mould (1). The commonly isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei representing 34.6%, 30.8% and 23.1%, respectively of the total fungi isolated. The phylogenetic analysis in comparison to Genbank data showed defined clades for Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans and Pichia kudriavzevii
Conclusion: This current study highlights the changing pattern of neonatal infections in Egypt caused by Candida, with increasing incidence of infections caused by non-albicans Candida species.

Key words: fungal infection, neonatal, risk factors, PCR, yeast

Received July 4, 2019; Revised September 16, 2019; Accepted September 18, 2019
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License (//creativecommmons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Infection fongique néonatale et infantile en Égypte: facteurs de risque et identification des isolats fongiques

1*Ahmed, S. H., 2Mokhtar, E. M., 3El-Kholy, I. M., 4El Essawy, A. K., 1El-Din, A. A., et 1Shetaia, Y. M.
1Département de microbiologie, Faculté des sciences, Université Ain Shams, Le Caire, Égypte
2Département de microbiologie, Hôpital Abou Al-Azayem, Le Caire, Égypte
3Département de pathologie clinique, Hôpital spécialisé de l’Université Ain Shams, Université Ain Shams,
Le Caire, Égypte
4Département de microbiologie, Université de Ain Shams, Spécialisé Hôpital, Université Ain Shams,
Le Caire, Égypte
*Correspondance à: sara_saifelnasr@hotmail.com; 00971563993304

Abstrait:

Contexte: Les maladies fongiques invasives (IFD) sont des infections opportunistes associées à une mortalité significative chez les patients pédiatriques, en particulier ceux dont le système immunitaire est compromis et les nouveau-nés de très faible poids à la naissance (VLBW). Les objectifs de cette étude sont de déterminer la prévalence, les caractéristiques cliniques et les isolements fongiques de la sepsie néonatale dans trois hôpitaux en Égypte.
Méthodologie: L’étude est une enquête transversale menée auprès de 176 nouveau-nés présentant une septicémie clinique et admis dans les unités de soins intensifs néonatals des trois hôpitaux sur une période d’un an (de février 2015 à janvier 2016). Un minimum de deux échantillons de sang (recueillis dans les 24 heures) de chaque nouveau-né ont été cultivés pour la bactérie dans des flacons de culture automatisés BacT/AlerT et conventionnels, tandis que le bouillon Saboraud-Brain Heart Infusion a été inoculé pour la culture de champignons. Les croissances positives du bouillon ont été sous-cultivées sur des plaques de gélose Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) pour une incubation aérobie à 25°C et à 37°C pendant 2 semaines. L’identification des colonies de champignons sur la SDA a été réalisée par la morphologie conventionnelle et confirmée sur un milieu chromogène en gélose. L’analyse phylogénétique d’isolats de champignons représentatifs a été réalisée par séquençage partiel de nucléotides du domaine D1-D2 du gène de l’ARNr de grande sous-unité.
Résultats: Sur les 176 nouveau-nés, la culture de sang était positive pour les agents pathogènes dans 55 échantillons (31,3%) et les champignons ont été isolés dans 26 (14,8%); levure (25) et moisissure (1). Les levures communément isolées étaient Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis et Candida krusei, représentant respectivement 34,6%, 30,8% et 23,1% du total des champignons isolés. L’analyse phylogénétique comparée aux données de Genbank a montré des clades définis pour Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans et Pichia kudriavzevii
Conclusion: La présente étude met en évidence l’évolution du schéma des infections néonatales causées par Candida en Égypte, avec une incidence croissante des infections causées par des espèces de Candida non albicans.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Fungal neonatal and infantile sepsis 2020; 21 (1): 14 – 20

Mots-clés: infection fongique, néonatale, facteurs de risque, PCR, levure

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Fungal neonatal and infantile sepsis in Egypt: risk factors and identification of fungal isolates

Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Malagasy veterinary students

T Rasamiravaka, A.J. Nirinarimanana, A Rasamindrakotroka

 

Abstract

Purpose: Populations that are frequently in contact with animals such as veterinary students have been demonstrated to be at risk of MRSA carriage.Thus, it is relevant to generate baseline data in MRSA nasal carriage and multidrug resistance among Malagasy veterinary students (Madagascar).

Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among veterinary students coming for laboratory training. After their wise consent, nasal swabs of the anterior nares were carried out; and S. aureus was isolated by selective chromogenic culture. They were then assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results: Nasal swabs of 155 Malagasy veterinary students (Sex-ratio M/F: 0.91), enabled to isolate 30 (19, 35%) S. aureus strains, among which 14 (46, 66 %) were méthicillin-resistant (MRSA). Risk factors analysis revealed that history of hospitalization, recent antibiotic intake and frequent contact with animals and livestock workers/veterinarians increase the risk of MRSA nasal carriage. Among MRSA nasal isolates, a high rate of multidrug resistance and particularly an intriguing resistance to gentamycin (20%) and vancomycin (7.14%) were observed.

Conclusion: These results suggest that MRSA is spreading in Malagasy community requiring a strategic policy against multidrug resistant strains.

Keywords: Madagascar, MRSA, Risk factors, Veterinary

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Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Malagasy veterinary students

Antifungal susceptibility profiles and risk factors of vaginal candidiasis amongst female university students in southwest region, Cameroon

L Ane-Anyangwe, HD Meriki, SP Silum, FR Nsongomanyi, D Zofou

 

Abstract

Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is second to bacterial vaginitis, as the most common opportunistic mucosal infection that affects large numbers of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. The incidence of VC is significantly modified by dressing patterns and aberrant health-care practices. Contemporary young women often shift their preference from skirt to trousers and leggingswhich also coincides with a rise in auto-medication and over-the-counter drugs phenomena in our communities. These could result in increased occurrence of vaginal candidiasis infection and antifungal drug resistance. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between March 2011 and August 2011 among150 female students(aged 17-29 years) of the University of Buea. Socio-demographics information, risk factors and clinical symptoms were gotten through a standard questionnaire. Vaginal swabs were collected from each participant and cultured on Sabouraud’sdextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (SDA-CAF). Identification and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed following standard microbiological procedures. Of the 150 participants who submitted vaginal swabs, yeasts was isolated in 98 (65.3%). Of the 98 yeasts isolates, 73.5% were Candida species, mainly C. albicans (65.3%). Overhalf (64.7%) ofstudyparticipantshadapreferencefortrousers,however, this attitude was not significantly associated (p = 0.559) with candidiasis.Previous episodes of vaginal infection and treatment for candidiasis were significantly associated with VC (p = 0.004). Antifungal susceptibility results showed a high resistance to fluconazole (82.0%), nystatin (80.0%) and ketoconazole (72.0%), while clotrimazole (50.0%) was the most activeantifungal drug. There was a high prevalence of VC in this study population with previous vaginal infectionbeing important risk factor for reoccurrence. Clotrimazole was the drug of choice in the treatment of VC in this population.

Key words: vaginal candidiasis, risk factors, antifungal susceptibility profiles

French Abstract

La candidose vaginale (CV) est la deuxième infection opportuniste de la muqueuse la plus fréquente (après la vaginite bactérienne) qui affecte un grand nombre de femmes en âge de procréer. L’incidence de la CV est affectée de façon significative par certaines habitudes vestimentaires et pratiques de soins de santé « aberrante »s. Chez les jeunes femmes contemporaines, les pantalons et leggings sont de plus en plus préférés aux jupes, ce qui coïncide aussi avec une augmentation du phénomène d’automédication dans nos communautés. Ces deux facteurs pourraient entraîner une augmentation de la prévalence de l’infection à Candida vaginale et la résistance aux antifongiques. La présente étude transversale a été menée entre Mars et Août 2011 portait sur 150 étudiantes âgées de 17 à 29 ans, à l’Université de Buea (Cameroun). Elle avait pour objectifs majeurs d’évaluer les profils de sensibilité aux antifongiques ainsi que les facteurs de risque de candidose vaginale chez les étudiantes universitaires. Les données sociodémographiques, informations sur les facteurs de risque et les symptômes cliniques ont été explores à l’aide d’un questionnaire semi-structuré. Des spécimens vaginaux ont été prélevés dans chaque participante et soumis à une culture sur le dextrose gélose de Sabouraud supplémenté par le chloramphénicol (SDA-CAF). Les tests d’identification et de sensibilité antifongique ont été réalisés suivant des procédures microbiologiques standard. Parmi les 150 participants qui ont soumis des prélèvements vaginaux, des levures ont été isolées de 98 personnes (65,3%). Sur les 98 levures isolées, 73,5% étaient des espèces de Candida, principalement C. albicans(65,3%). Plus de la moitié des participants (64.7%) ont exprimé des préférences pour les pantalons et autres styles vestimentaires émergents. Cependant, de telles attitudes n’ont pas paru statistiquement associées à l’occurrence des candidoses au sein de la population ciblée (p = 0.559). Des précédents épisodes d’infection vaginale et le traitement de la candidose reportés par les participantes étaient significativement associés à CV (p = 0,004). Les résultats de sensibilité antifongiques ont montré une grande résistance au Fluconazole (82,0%), Nystatine (80,0%) et Kétoconazole (72,0%), tandis que le Clotrimazole (50,0%) était le médicament antifongique le plus actif. Il y avait une forte prévalence de CV dans cette population d’étude avec infection vaginale précédente étant facteur de risque important pour la répétition. Le Clotrimazole s’est avéré comme étant le médicament de choix dans le traitement des CV dans cette population, malgré la forte résistance.

Mots clés: Candidose Vaginale, facteurs de risque, les profils de sensibilité aux antifongiques

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Antifungal susceptibility profiles and risk factors of vaginal candidiasis amongst female university students in southwest region, Cameroon

The etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections at a private Nigerian teaching hospital in South West Nigeria

C.J. Elikwu, E.O. Shobowale, O.Y. Oluyemi, D.O. Afolabi, D.A. Aderinto, K.I. Onyedibe, A.U. Solarin

 

Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI’s) are among the commonest bacterial infectious disease in clinical practice with a wide range of etiologic agents. It frequently occurs in both the hospital and the community.

Aims/Objectives: To determine the etiology of UTI at BUTH and obtain data on their susceptibility and resistance patterns.

Methods: This was a prospective analysis of data on patients with UTI obtained from in and outpatients over a six month period. Samples had been obtained by clean catch mid-stream urine or suprapubic aspiration. The organisms had been
identified by biochemical methods with susceptibility and resistance testing performed. Data analysis was with EPI-INFO version 3.5.1

Results: There were a total of 200 urine samples that had positive growth. Prevalent organisms were Escherichia coli (48%) and Klebsiella spp (24%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (6.5%). The risk factors for UTI were female gender (p = 0.00), Diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03) and genitourinary surgery (p = 0.04). Effective antibiotics in-vitro to Escherichia coli were Nitrofurantoin and Cefepime at 84.8% and 92.3% respectively; while Cotrimoxazole performed poorly (32.5% susceptibility).

Conclusion: Urinary tract infections are an important cause of morbidity in our environment and inaccuracies in diagnosis will prolong morbidity and may lead to costly and unsafe treatments.The prevalent pathogens in our environment are the Gram negative bacilli, Escherichia coli andKlebsiella pneumoneae. Nitrofurantoin retains efficacy to both urinary pathogens.

Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection, Catheterization, Escherichia coli, Risk factors, Nitrofurantoin

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The etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections at a private Nigerian teaching hospital in South West Nigeria