Prevalence of antibiotic residues in body organs of pigs slaughtered in Jos, Nigeria

*1Anueyiagu, K. N., 1Nandi, S., 1Uzochukwu, I. A., and 2Sule, S. O.

1Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, NVRI Vom, Nigeria

2Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, NVRI Vom, Nigeria

*Correspondence to:; +2348035841582;

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Background: Drug residue is a serious issue for the food chain when antimicrobial substances are inappropriately used or when the withdrawal times before slaughtering the treated animals are not respected. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of antibiotic residues in pork slaughtered for human consumption in Jos South Local Government Area (LGA), Plateau State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 96 samples which included muscles (n=32), liver (n=32) and kidneys (n=32), were randomly collected from Gyel, Kuru, Du, and Vwang slaughter slabs in the LGA. The three-plate-test (TPT) technique was conducted where three batches of nutrient agar plates were aseptically prepared and adjusted to pH 6.0, 7.2 and 8.0. Each plate was seeded with isolated Bacillus subtilis and 5 holes were made on the plate with a sterile cork borer. The holes were inoculated with 80 µl of each organ extract, 10 µg/ml gentamicin (positive control) and distill water (negative control), and incubated aerobically at 37oC for 18-24 hours. Positive antibiotic residue was shown by a clear zone of inhibition (annular diameter of ≥ 2 mm) around the holes.

Results: The result showed that 55.2% (53/96) of the organs tested positive for antibiotic residues while 44.8% (43/96) tested negative. The liver had the highest prevalence of antibiotic residues (68.8%, 22/32), followed by the kidneys (56.3%, 18/32) and the muscles (40.6%, 13/32). The difference in the prevalence of antibiotic residues between the organs was not statistically significant (𝜒2=5.1391, p=0.0765). Detection of tetracycline at pH 6.0 was highest in the organs while detection of sulphonamides was lowest at pH 7.2.

Conclusion: The determination of antibiotic residues in pork slaughtered for consumption in Jos South LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria posed potential public health risks. This situation indicates a wide spread uncontrolled use of antimicrobials in pig production, and requires urgent attention of government to enforce regulations guiding antibiotic use in veterinary settings in Nigeria.

Keywords: Antibiotic residues, antimicrobials, pigs, three plate test, Jos, Nigeria

Received Mar 7, 2022; Revised Apr 12, 2022; Accepted Apr 13, 2022

Copyright 2022 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source. Editor-in-Chief: Prof. S. S. Taiwo

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Prevalence of antibiotic residues in body organs of pigs slaughtered in Jos, Nigeria